"If the Earth kills you because you cannot survive against the elements--you are not going to do much against the human enemy."
"An army marches on its stomach." Napoleon Bonaparte. It means that for an army to be effective, it relies on good and plentiful food. Therefore, target to cut off food supplies (as the Russians did both in the 19th and 20th centuries against the French and Nazis) and the enemy will crumble.
"God and a soldier all people adore in time of war, but not before; And when war is over and all things are righted, God is neglected and an old soldier forgotten."
The difference between soldier and a mass murderer: Mass Murderers feel they have no prospects for the future and were influenced by radical ideology. All of them see their victims as nothing more than fodder to absorb their rage and think mass murder would give their lives meaning. They studied or idolized previous mass killers.
The Israeli war in Lebanon in 2006, which mostly relied on its vastly superior air power, did not give it the results it expected. But even this very short war cost Israel $1.6 billion and shaved off about 1% from its annual economic growth.
Nazi Germany rejected recreational drugs but Pervitin (a methamphetamine-based drug) was manufactured and distributed among its armed forces to keep them alert and motivated. To ensure that millions of German housewives on the home front were not left out, the Nazis even developed chocolates containing the drug. Hitler himself was growing dependence on a pain-killing narcotic injection drug called “Eukodal”.
Statistical analysis by the US Army of rifle engagements in WW II, Korea and Vietnam revealed that 90 per cent of them were at ranges less than 300 metres and 70% at 200 metres and less. Therefore, the emphasis on long-range accuracy of 300-800 metres was found somewhat redundant. The propensity to consume ammunition reached the astounding rate of 50,000 rounds per kill in the Korean War. This obviously means that the soldier now needs to carry greater quantities of ammunition.
Special Forces and Drug Abuse: The military and Special Forces are pushed to the limit during intensive training programs for maximum combat efficiency. However, there are only few that meet Special Forces requirement. Extended deployments, psychologically exhausted, troubled family life, and problems related to PTSD, all factor into why substance abuse is having a disproportionate effect on Special Forces operators. While programs and money has been budgeted to address these problems, they will only work if Special Forces are not used as regular Army or member must be allowed back in the unit after successfully completing rehab, instead of being pensioned off to some remote part of the military bureaucracy until he can be discharged. Within Special Forces subculture, members protect and care for one another. Special Forces units will cover for a team member who battles substance abuse by saying "He's a good operator, and the unit can't afford to lose him." Instead of receiving the help they need, operators suffering from substance abuse are often shuffled around until they can be honorably discharged. However, upon being discharged, the support group which they had while in service disappears.
In India, since 2014, according to a defence ministry submission in Parliament, 310 officers have committed suicide and 11 cases of fratricide were reported in this period.
The MultiCam pattern, which was used on most uniforms for soldiers deployed to Iraq in 2010, is privately owned by a company called Crye Precision and is said to be useful for concealment in a variety of environments and terrains, including urban, desert and green settings.
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal 2014 called on the Pentagon to put an end to the services branding their ranks with unique camouflage uniforms.
In addition to Crye, the other finalists in the Army's Phase IV camouflage testing included ADS Inc., teamed with Hyperstealth, Inc.; Brookwood Companies Inc.; and Kryptek Inc.
Johannes Haller, a qualified master weaver from Europe, invented the new khaki dye from the bark of semicarpus tree at Basel Mission’s weaving establishment in Balmatta in 1851, reveals Jaiprakash Raghavaiah’s doctoral work (‘Basel Mission industries in Malabar and South Canara: 1834-1914’) and reports of German evangelical mission in the department of archives, Karnataka Theological College (KTC), Balmatta.
In 1844, Basal Mission set up a weaving factory staffed by lower caste Christian converts on land donated by Collector H M Blair at Balmatta. Initially the fabrics produced were of poor quality, the documents reveal. The Industrial Commission set up in 1846 to help missionary industrial activities deputed a trained weaving specialist, Johnnes Haller. Archives say that with his arrival, the weaving industry ‘developed by leaps and bounds’. In 1851, he installed a dye house.
How khaki came to be adopted as police and army uniform in many countries is fascinating. British-Indian Army Commander-in-Chief Lord Roberts, during his visit to the weaving factory, was pleased with the colour. He describes khaki as an ‘attractive uniform’ in Rodney Atwood’s The Life of Field Marshal Lord Roberts and introduced it as the everyday uniform of the British Army the world over.
The WPMS is designed using a microcontroller. It is interfaced with wireless communication and global positioning system (GPS) modules. The acquired signals are sent in real-time at a speed of 250samples/second, digitised at 12-bit resolution and transmitted wirelessly along with the geo-location of the wearer. It monitors and issues real-time signals pertaining to electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram, body temperature, blood pressure, galvanic skin response and heart rate of each soldier.
The galvanic skin response (GSR) detects a change in the electrical properties of the skin in response to stress or anxiety; and can be measured either by recording the electrical resistance of the skin or through weak currents generated by the body in such circumstances. The photoplethysmogram (PPG) non-invasively screens and relays in real-time valuable information about the performance of each soldier's cardiovascular system. It detects anomalies by illuminating the skin with a light from a light-emitting diode (LED) and then measuring the amount of light either transmitted or reflected to a photodiode attached to the vest.
P.S. U.S. SEAL Team 6 was created in the 1980s as an elite of the elite commando unit. The United States currently has about 3,500 SEALs, divided among eight SEAL Teams (each with about 120 SEALs and about 200 support personnel), plus DEVGRU (the official designation for SEAL Team 6). Most SEAL Teams are trained for operations worldwide, while Team 3 and 10 specialize in Middle Eastern operations. It was also confirmed that there is one special espionage unit of about a hundred SEALs, some of them female.
Offensive operations have 4 types:
- (deploy) movement to (enemy) contact,
- Attacking and widening; and securing the Flanks
- Seizing, exploitation and disrupt, and
- Pursuit to cut-off.
(Mobility is key to successful offensive operations. River crossings are among the most critical, complex, and vulnerable combined arms operations.)