When my brother and I built the first man-carrying flying machine we thought that we were introducing into the world an invention which would make further wars practically impossible. — Orville Wright, 1917.
The importance of flight hours was made clear during World War II when some nations simply didn't have the fuel available for pilot training. They documented combat (and non-combat) losses increasing as training-hours-in-the-air declined. Nazi Germany's warplanes began losing, big time, when they could no longer produce enough fuel to allow their trainee pilots sufficient time in the air. About half of the active duty pilots in the U.S. Navy in late 1941 had between 300 and 600 hours flying experience, a quarter between 600 and 1000 hours, and the balance more than 1000 hours.
Combat pilots need about 200 hours a year to build and maintain their combat skills. As flight hours decreased everyone discovered the fact that fighter pilots were less likely to stay in the military the fewer flight hours they got. Fighter pilots really want is practice maneuvering rather than flying in circles waiting to drop bombs.
Now, unable to afford fuel for training, flight simulators are being used more frequently. These devices are becoming cheaper and more realistic, but research (mostly from training exercises, not actual combat) shows that each hour of simulator time is worth only about half or two-thirds of an hour in the air. Ironically the robotic pilots will probably arrive at the same time flight simulators become effective enough to replace most actual flight hours.
By the time the Second World War began, fighters had evolved into specialized combat aircraft types. Many Second World War fighter warplanes were armed with either six or eight machine guns built inside the wings. During the Battle of Britain, British fighter pilots saved England from German invasion by repelling thousands of German ME109 warplanes with their Spitfire Aircraft.
During World War II, IAF planes bombarded the advancing Japanese army in Burma; its first air strike was on the Japanese military base in Arakan, followed by Japanese airbases at Mae Hong Son, Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai in northern Thailand. IAF’s major role was strike, close air support, aerial reconnaissance, bomber escort and pathfinding missions for Royal Air Force and United States Air Force’s (USAF) heavy bombers. During WW II, IAF expanded its strength with US-built Vultee Vengeances, Douglas DC-3s, British Hawker Hurricanes, Supermarine Spitfires and Westland Lysanders. In 1945, King George renamed IAF as the Royal Indian Air Force. In 1950, when India became a republic, it shed its colonial tag to become IAF again.
In 1948, India tasked its nascent aircraft industry – in the form of Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) – to begin work on a basic piston-engine trainer to supplement and then supplant the Tiger Moths and Percival Prentice aircraft then in service. The result was the Hindustan HT-2, which served with distinction from 1953 until its retirement in 1990. Over 170 were built, with a dozen being used to form the Ghanaian Air Force in 1959. HAL initiated some work into civil aircraft with the HUL-26 Puspak trainer becoming a staple of Indian civil flying clubs following its first flight in 1958. An enlarged version, the HAOP-27 Krishak, formed the basis of army air observation flights until being replaced by Cheetah helicopters from the mid-1970s. The HAL HA-31 Basant crop-spraying aircraft had a limited production run (31 aircraft) but proved successful in service.
de Havilland DH 82A Tiger Moth is a 1930s two seat, single bay biplane powered by a 145 hp GYPSY MAJOR four cylinder inverted air-cooled engine, designed by Geoffrey de Havilland and was operated by the Royal Air Force (RAF) and others as a primary trainer.
The primary trainer for the Royal Air Force during the second world war, it was the basic trainer in the Indian Air Force right from 1940. The Vampire series of aircraft was the second jet-powered aircraft. It (naval version) was the first jet-powered aircraft anywhere to land on a moving aircraft carrier. The Tiger Moth remained in service with the RAF until replaced by the de Havilland Chipmunk in 1952. Both the training schools in the IAF operated the Tigermoth, and after it was replaced by the HT-2.
The Vampire did away with standard approaches and fitted its engine into a centralized nacelle straddled by twin fuselage "boom" structures. The Tiger Moth responds well to control input, and is fairly easy to fly for a tail dragger. Its big "parachute" wings are very forgiving, and it stalls at a speed as slow as 25 knots with power. Its stall and spin characteristics are benign. Because the Tiger Moth has no electrical system, it must be started by hand.
The pilot cannot see directly ahead, so the lower wing can hit obstructions, and it is susceptible to gusts of wind on its inclined, large, upper wing. full power should not be maintained for more than a minute or so to avoid damaging the engine.
Restored 1930 vintage Tiger Moth
At the joystick were Group Captain DS Dangi and Wing Commander Himanshu Kulshreshtha. Said Chief pilot and Kargil war vet Wg Cdr Kulshreshtha of the long flight to Bengaluru: “It took us six days to reach Bengaluru from Delhi. We had to stop and refuel 16 times as the aircraft has a fuel capacity of 90 litres and can fly for two and a half hours at a stretch.
“We could not overtake a single car or a train. They overtook us as we flew. We never went beyond 110 KMPH and flew 5000 feet above sea level. Wherever we landed at the many disused runways on the way, people in the surrounding areas would flock to us with questions. It was wonderful how they connected with her (Tiger Moth aircraft).”
The main change says Wg Cdr Kulshreshtha is that “unlike modern aircraft which have a nose wheel, the Tiger Moth, which was designed in 1930, has a tail wheel.” It was training by the Royal Air Force on planes designed in 1930 that helped.
“Taking off and landing techniques are very different. It is a light aircraft, just 1800 lbs and very delicate with its wooden fabric wings. There's no auto pilot. That makes good pilots skills vital. Only after flying this machine did I realise the value of the many lessons my flight instructor gave me,” he said.
Canadian de Havilland DHC-1 Chipmunk Mk10 is a tandem-seat stressed-skin monoplane, single-engined standard primary trainer, affectionately known as the Chippie. It flew for the first time on May 22 1946. It was designed in response to a growing need to replace the Royal Air Force's ageing Tiger Moth two seat basic trainer biplane.
The de Havilland Chipmunk was the first true postwar aviation project of de Havilland Canada. It was was very successful and inspired many other designs, like the nearly carbon copy Hindustan HT-10.
The Chipmunk was in use in the RCAF, the RAF, the Portugese Army; some delivered to Lebanon, Egypt, India and Thailand.
HAL HT-2 is an Indian two-seater, low-wing cantilever monoplane with a fixed tail-wheel landing gear. It was a primary flying trainer aircraft that entered service in 1953.
The HAL HT-2 is powered by a Blackburn Cirrus Major Mk III 155hp (116kW) in-line piston engine and has enclosed tandem cockpits with dual controls. It provided a top speed of 209 km/h and a range of 563 km.
The HT-2 was the first company design to enter production in 1953 for the Indian Air Force and Navy. Apart from military use the aircraft was also used by Indian flying schools.
Mitsubishi A6M Reisen Camo II
A design team headed by Jiro Horikoshi originated a prototype in 1939. The A6M was a study in aerodynamic cleanliness despite its bulky radial engine. It had widetrack undercarriage for easy landing and was heavily armed with two cannons and two machine guns. Tests proved it possessed phenomenal climbing and turning ability, so it entered production in 1940, the Japanese year 5700. Henceforth, the new fighter was known officially as the Type 0, but it passed into history as the Reisen, or Zero.
Lightly wing loaded, these sweet handling, tight turning, "knife fight in a phone booth" type fighter planes lacked the top speed and sustained climb rate to rank as overall ueber fighters, but they were excellent in a dog fight.
Designed the Ha-40, a licensed built Daimler-Benz 601 engine, the Ki-61 perfromed well when tested against a captured P-40E and a Bf 109E that had been shipped in by submarine for evaluation (800 MG 151/20 cannon were also aboard this submarine). Introduced into combat in 1943, the Tony saw constant action against the Allied advance.
In 1945 the allies succeeded in destroying production of the Ha-140 engine, Kawasaki took 275 completed airframes and fitted the Mitsubishi Ha-112-II radial engine. The lashed together fighter surprised everyone by being the most formidable fighter ever produced by the Japanese. The first unit to be equipped with this fighter engaged US Navy fighters over Okinawa, destroying 14 Hellcats with no losses to themselves. This easily flown and serviced fighter fought well against the allies till the end, but did not exsist in sufficient numbers to affect the outcome.
The Kawasaki Ki-61-II with the company's Ha-140 engine was seen as an interim high-altitude interceptor to tackle the USAF's Boeing B-29s at their cruising altitude of some 9000m. However, development of the Ha-140 as a reliable power-plant was terminated finally when the Akashi factory where the engine was built was destroyed during an air raid. With the requirement becoming daily more urgent, Kawasaki was instructed to convert the 275 Ki-61-II airframes gathering dust in the Kagamigahara factory with alternative power-plant. No other similar engine was available and adaptation of the slender fuselage of the Ki-61 to allow installation of a large-diameter radial engine at first appeared impractical. However, Kawasaki's design team converted three airframes to serve as prototypes, installing a Mitsubishi Ha-112-II engine which had the same power output as the unreliable Ha-140. When the first of these was flown, on 1 February 1945, Kawasaki discovered that it had a first class fighter, one that some commentators have described as Japan's premier fighter aircraft of the Pacific war. By the end of May 1945 all of the remaining 272 Ki-61 airframes had been converted to the new configuration, entering service as the Army Type 5 Fighter Model 1A, which was identified by the company as the Kawasaki Ki-100-Ia.
With the Ki-100 proving such a success, it was decided to initiate production of this aircraft, the resulting Ki-100-Ib differing only by having the cutdown rear fuselage and all-round-view canopy that had been designed for the proposed Ki-61-III. A total of 99 of this version was built before production was brought to an end by the growing weight of USAAF air attacks. A more effective version had been planned, to be powered by the Mitsubishi Ha-112- Ilru engine which incorporated a turbocharger to improve high-altitude performance, but only three of these Ki-100-II prototypes had been built and flown by the end of the war.
Using equipment and components manufactured during the occupation of Czechoslovakia, some Me 262s were produced by Avia, in Czechoslovakia after the war, under the designation S.92.
In its brightest moments, when it was used as intended, the Me 262 was the equivalent of sending the "Three Musketeers" against Sitting Bull at Little Big Horn. In one battle, for instance, 37 of the 262s were scrambled against an Allied raid that consisted of 1,221 bombers and 632 fighter escorts! In their most effective performance, they cost the Allies a one percent loss.
For a single nation to twice take on the modern world within a 20-year period, there must be a high level of self-delusion, if not madness, in the highest ranks of government, especially when it was still staggering from the effects of losing the first try. None-the-less, Nazi Germany did exactly that, and no amount of technological ingenuity could alter that fact, as the history of the Messerschmitt Me 262, the first turbojet to be used in combat, dramatically illustrates. Had the aircraft been introduced in large numbers in 1939, it is conceivable that the "Battle of Britain" might have ended as Hitler envisioned, while the United States, had it become involved, would have had to fight an aerial war from across the Atlantic.
engine: Daimler-Benz DB 606
In aviation, German aeronautical science had been accepted as superior from the late days of World War I. And in the late 1920s the Air Ministry recognized the talents of a young Canadian, Beverley Shenstone, who had been recruited by the ministry’s research laboratory in London, and they gave him a secret mission. Beverley Shenstone himself remains an elusive figure. There are no photographs of him at Supermarine, while there are many of Mitchell. He never sought any credit for his work on the Spitfire.
In 1929 Shenstone left London and went to work at the Junkers airplane company in Dessau, Germany as a junior aerodynamicist. The Nazis were four years from taking power. The Versailles Treaty limited to Germany to non-military aviation, but, as Shenstone discovered in Dessau, the Germans were still able to develop highly advanced commercial airplanes that would easily morph into bombers and fighters.
The Germans saw nothing sinister in Shenstone’s acuity and keen curiosity to understand their secrets. And the Germans themselves were openly developing a radical idea that had originated in America, the all-metal airplane. (The U.S. military was far slower to adopt this innovation than were the commercial airplane firms.) Shenstone soon discovered that among German aerodynamicists one name kept cropping up as a genius: Alexander Martin Lippisch.
Lippisch was a wing specialist. Indeed, his designs were very little more than wings, anticipating the delta-shaped all-wing form used today by America’s most potent weapon, the B2 stealth bomber. Lippisch had a prototype “flying wing” in the air as early as 1931.
Shenstone left Junkers and worked for a while in the laboratory near Frankfurt where Lippisch ran something akin to Leonardo’s workshop. Soaking up everything he could, Shenstone realized that Lippisch’s ideas were, in embryo, the future of high-speed flight, and way ahead of anything being developed in Britain or America. (Lippisch went on to produce the Luftwaffe’s astonishing Me-163 rocket-powered fighter, in 1941 the first plane to pass the 1000kph barrier. After the war, Lippisch was one of a group of German aerodynamicists sent to America who developed wings for high speed jets.)
As Hitler’s ambitions became clearer after 1933 the Air Ministry realized that the RAF was dangerously underprepared for a modern war in the air, they sent a specification for a new front-line fighter to a number of companies, including Supermarine. At least one British agent (a distant relative of Winston Churchill), using the cover of a junior aeronautical engineer, was working in Germany at the Messerschmitt plant as the company’s resident genius, Willy Messerschmitt, planned what would turn out to be one of the most superb fighters ever built, the Me 109.
But Mitchell was unimpressed by the design specified by the Air Ministry. He believed that Supermarine could do far better because he saw that a new engine produced by Royals Royce, the Merlin, that had the potential to take a fighter to the then unprecedented speed of 350mph—and probably beyond the threshold of 400mph. He also knew that to achieve this the airplane would need a very innovative wing design.
The wings had to do several things simultaneously, none of which had so far been combined, and they had to do them superbly. They had to have a thin airfoil, be strong enough to stand the stresses of extreme maneuvers in combat, yet they also had to be thick enough nearer to the fuselage to accommodate a retracted landing gear, guns, and ammunition magazines.
Mitchell recognized that in Shenstone he had a designer who—thanks to his zealous work in Germany—could probably deliver a wing that reconciled all those qualities. Shenstone proposed a solution: the elliptical wing. At an air show in Paris he ran his hands over the wing of a new Heinkel and marvelled at its smoothness. He wrote to the firm’s boss, Ernst Heinkel, to ask how this had been achieved, and Heinkel answered, revealing that the Germans had used a technique to sink rivets flush with the wing’s skin, instead of what was then the common practice of leaving rivet heads sticking out. The Spitfire’s wing would have sunken rivets.
The sophistication of the Spitfire’s design made it more difficult to manufacture than the fighter that fought alongside it in the Battle of Britain, the Hurricane. As a result there were more squadrons of Hurricanes involved in the early stages of the battle than Spitfires. The Hurricane had virtues of its own, though: It was robust, easier to service (therefore quicker to turn around between flights than the Spitfire), and it was very effective against the German bombers. But the Spitfire was superior at higher altitudes against the swarms of Me 109s that escorted the bombers, and it was the Spitfire that quickly earned the respect of the German fighter pilots. It was not until 1942 that America produced a fighter, the Mustang, equal to the Spitfire and those of the Luftwaffe." : Clive Irving
The Pfeil's performance was much better than other twin-engine designs due to its unique "push-pull" layout and the much lower drag of the in-line alignment of the two engines. With the two engines mounted fore-and-aft in tandem is known as centre-line thrust. With the power from both engines being delivered along the aircraft centre-line, the obvious benefits of this layout include reduced frontal area, an aerodynamically clean wing and the elimination of the asymmetry problems associated with engine failure. The Dornier Do335 was a bold attempt to embody the centre-line thrust concept in a practical and efficient airframe.
The Do335A-2 And A-3 were proposed developments with improved cannon armament, but were never built. One Do335A-0 became the prototype for the Do335A-4. The Do335 V10 (CP+UK) was the prototype for the Do335A-6 radar equipped two-seat night fighter variant.
Robert Novell During World War I, at age 16, he joined the Navy; after the War, he became a pilot. Here, he received the training that fueled a lifetime of invention in electronic technology. From the 1930s to the 1960s, William Powell Lear earned over 100 patents for groundbreaking electronic devices in three industries, including the first practical automobile radio, the airplane radio-compass and autopilot, and the eight-track tape player.
In 1930 Galvin Manufacturing introduced this car radio as the “Motorola” (“motor” (motorcar) + “ola” (sound)).
By the beginning of the Second World War, he had invented the first reliable aeronautical radio compass, as well as the “Learmatic Navigator”—an automatic pilot system, which kept planes on course by locking into whatever radio broadcasts the apparatus picked up. In 1962, after he made possible the first-ever completely automatic blind landings of passenger flights.
Lear moved on to yet another challenge: the perfection of an endless magnetic loop recording and playback system.
At the beginning of World War II, the killing machine with the charm of a Carl Bark's duck was considered the most feared American fighter by the Japanese air force. After all, her tearing speed enabled her to easily compete with the jets of the sons of the rising sun. Two of her nicknames say a lot about her character: On the one hand “The Whistling Death“ - endowed because of the murderous high-pitched sound it made on approach caused by airflow through the wing-root oil coolers. The carrier crew associated it with the whistling sound of the Grim Reaper. Another nickname was “The Ensign Eliminator“: At the start, the F4U developed such an enormous torque, that inexperienced pilots could not handle the aircraft without being initially thrown off course.
Minimum aerodynamic resistance, maximum speed and the most powerful engine to fit the smallest possible hull, were the prerequisites when developing the F4U-4. With the 18-cylinder Pratt & Whitney R- 2800 Double Wasp radial engine and 1824 hp, the Corsair had a real monster under its wing. The dimensions required the bent wing in order to keep the landing gear reasonably short, as well as sturdy enough for carrier landings, and to provide ground clearance for the propeller.
In order to convert this overwhelming power to propulsion, an extra large propeller measuring 4 meters in diameter was needed, which in turn required an expansive undercarriage. This difference of level to the ground demanded ingenuity and the Corsair engineers resorted to a trick: The development of the characteristic inverted gull wing, its most striking feature. The wings can be bent vertically upwards, saving space on the aircraft carrier on past missions, and proving extremely advantageous in transport operations nowadays.
The Corsair has a wingspan of 12.48 m, is 10.26 m in length and can fly at an altitude of almost 13,000 meters. The aircraft was developed for U.S. Navy as fighter-bomber in 1939, was deployed as a fighter and night fighter in the Korean War and after being withdrawn from service was sold to the French air force by the Americans.
However, numerous technical problems had to be solved before the Corsair entered service. Carrier suitability was especially troublesome, leading to changes of the landing gear, tail-wheel, and tailhook. Additionally, a small spoiler was added to the leading edge of the starboard wing to reduce adverse stall characteristics. A noticeable problem with the Corsair design was its difficulty to recover from a developed spin, as its wing shape interfered with elevator control.
Due to visibility problems on landing caused by a combination of the pilot's position and the length of the nose, which made landing tricky for poorly trained pilots, Corsairs were largely barred from U.S. carrier service until the end of 1944. When the aircraft finally saw combat it was nonetheless a superb fighter compared to its contemporaries, achieving a 11 to 1 victory ratio. However, nearly as many Corsairs were lost to landing accidents as the type downed enemy aircraft.
Corsairs also served well as fighter-bombers in the Central Pacific and the Philippines. Night-fighter versions were produced, equipping Navy and Marine units ashore and afloat. British units flying from aircraft carriers solved the landing visibility problem by approaching the carrier in a medium left-hand turn, which allowed the pilot to keep the carrier's deck in view over the dip in the port wing, allowing safe carrier operations. At war's end, Corsairs wee ashore on Okinawa combating the Kamikaze suicide pilots and flying from fleet and escort carriers.
The Corsair of the skies is able to withstand 4,5 G anytime and the maintenance team at the Hangar-8 treat and pamper the old bird with indulgence: Following an hour's flight one can reckon with 40 hours maintenance. As can be expected of a pirate, the Corsair has a ferocious appetite and consumes 400 liters fuel per hour, in fact when starting up the consumption is no less than threefold! The Corsair exhibited at the Hangar-7 has been immaculately overhauled and maintained; a stylish and a unique edition of the F4U-4.
She is perhaps not exactly a sports aircraft in the common sense, but perfectly designed to function as a private sports aircraft: During the nineties she was deployed at hundreds of air shows between Oslo and Rome, without having the engine of that robust predator even splutter. The Corsair - the Keith Richards among the Flying Bulls.
It was a British jet-engine fighter commissioned by the Royal Air Force during the Second World War. Following the Gloster Meteor, it was the second jet fighter to enter service with the RAF. Although it arrived too late to see combat during the war, the Vampire served with front line RAF squadrons until 1953 and continued in use as a trainer until 1966, although generally the RAF relegated the Vampire to advanced training roles in the mid-1950s and the type was generally out of RAF service by the end of the decade. The Vampire also served with many air forces worldwide, setting aviation firsts and records.
Originally named the "Spider Crab," the aircraft was entirely a de Havilland project, exploiting the company's extensive experience in building with moulded plywood for aircraft construction. Many of the basic design features were first used in their Mosquito bomber. It had conventional straight mid-wings and a single jet engine placed in an egg-shaped, aluminium-skinned fuselage, exhausting in a straight line.
No. 7 Squadron, Indian Air Force (IAF) received Vampires in January 1949. Although the unit was put on high alert during the Sino-Indian War of 1962, it did not see any action, as the air force's role was limited to supply and evacuation. On September 1, 1965, during the Indo-Pakistani War, IAF Vampires saw action for the first time. No. 45 Squadron responded to a request for strikes against a counter-attack by the Pakistani Army (Operation Grand Slam) and four Vampire Mk 52 fighter-bombers were successful in slowing the Pakistani advance. However, the Vampires encountered two Pakistan Air Force (PAF) F-86 Sabres, armed with air to air missiles; in the ensuing dogfight, the outdated Vampires were outclassed. One was shot down by ground fire and another three were shot down by Sabres. The Vampires were withdrawn from front line service after these losses.
HAL received a licence to produce the Bristol Orpheus engine. This engine, despite its limitations, provided the Gnat with a then unheard of thrust-to-weight ratio of 0.75:1. It was hoped that HAL’s experience with the Gnat would have led to the development of a more advanced version, but the inherent limitations with the Orpheus B.OR.2 Mk.701 engine rated at 4,520 lbf (20.11 kN), rendered such efforts futile.
Although never used as a fighter by the Royal Air Force (RAF), the "Gnat T.1" trainer variant was widely used, and as the mount for the RAF Red Arrows aerobatic team, the Gnat became a national icon. The Gnat also achieved export success, particularly with India, the largest foreign operator who manufactured the aircraft under license. In the absence of its own motor it was powered by a preproduction Bristol Orpheus turbojet. IAF pilots were delighted with the nimble Gnat, which they felt was more than a match for Pakistani F-86s and MiG-19s, and nicknamed it the "Saber Slayer".
In 1972, the IAF issued a requirement for an improved "Gnat II", at first specifying that the new version was to be optimized as an interceptor, but then expanding the specification to include the ground-attack role. India then developed the "Ajeet" (meaning "Unbeatable"), a modified variant with improved hydraulics, avionics, landing & breaking gears and new ejection seat. The HAL Ajeet, while intended to improve on the Gnat’s performance, was only marginally successful as by 1975, the desired performance could only be achieved with a more powerful engine and more advanced avionics
By the end of 1971, the Gnat proved to be a frustrating opponent for the technically superior Sabres and had lived up to its Indian Air Force nickname of "Sabre Slayers" since all its combat "kills" during the two wars were against Sabres. The success of the indigenously produced Gnats against the more sophisticated Pakistani-flown aircrafts were viewed as a significant achievement. The cannons & bomb adding extra weight to the large Sabres which subsequently affected Thrust to weight ratio. Sabre engines could not develop/provide the required thrust for Indian battle front and to counter Folland Gnat's quick maneuverability. Folland Gnats were very hard to spot at low levels.
The BAe Hawk was designed specifically to provide the utility of the Gnat T.1, while lowering operational costs and eliminating some of the Gnat's defects. India & BAe has developed a weaponised Hawk Mk 132+ will include a large-area cockpit display, support for helmet-mounted cueing systems.
At the end of the Second World War, Canada is one of the world's major industrial powers. The Royal Canadian Air Force is the third largest in the world, and aircraft manufacturer A.V. Roe Canada produced some of the best bombers of the war. In 1949 the company introduces the North America's commercial jet, the Avro Jetliner, but then the Korean War breaks out and all efforts turn towards producing jet warplanes.
Avro's latest success story is the CF-100 "Canuck," a long-range, all-weather jet designed to intercept nuclear-armed Soviet bombers crossing the Arctic Ocean. But there are fears of a "bomber gap," and the RCAF wants a plane that can fly higher and faster than anything currently available.
After four years of work by 14,000 people, the first Avro Arrow is wheeled out of a hangar in Malton, Ont. on Oct. 4, 1957. A huge crowd is on hand to marvel at the sleek white craft. But the Arrow's timing turns out to be disastrous: the Soviet Union launches the Sputnik 1 satellite the same day, diverting attention from the Arrow and prompting some Canadians to begin rethinking the country's approach to strategic defence.
The Arrow is poised to become the fastest aircraft on the planet, but some critics are asking if it matters anymore. As the Soviets and Americans race into the age of missile defence, the U.S.-built Bomarc missile is now front and centre in North American defence strategy. The Arrow, built to chase bombers, may be on shaky ground.
The Bomarc was an anti-aircraft weapon, as was the Arrow. It would not defend against nuclear Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs). The Americans were planning to use the Bomarc to destroy bombers that their manned interceptors missed. The Bomarc carried a nuclear warhead and would destroy an enemy plane by detonating a nuclear explosion nearby. Canada was under some pressure to build northern Bomarc stations to avoid these explosions happening over heavily populated Southern Canada.
To the horror of Avro employees, an order comes from the Ministry of Defence Production to erase all traces of the Avro Arrow. Complete planes and those in production are chopped into pieces, as are all models, tools and the entire production line. Blueprints, pictures and film are destroyed.
"In 2005, The History Channel aired a special (Secret Superpower Aircraft: Fighters), in which it revealed for the first time that the totality of the Arrow's cancellation was due to a suspected Soviet KGB spy in the Avro plant, whose work culminated in the building of the MiG-25, an interceptor that bore many similarities to the Arrow. This is highly unlikely and the suggestion is the writer has gotten it wrong. The fact of a mole in Avro was revealed in the 70s in a book about the RCMP. The fact was confirmed by RCAF personnel to the author of Storms. Later this fact was confirmed in a book called the Mitrokhin archives. The mole issue was given in Storms as the reason why the aircraft and plans were destroyed. This was further revealed in Storms in quoting an Aviation Week article from 1959 that stated government officials had said the plans were destroyed as they could aid a potential enemy."
Other nations were also under the impression that manned fighters would become obsolete in the age of missiles. The Bomarc Missile Program was highly controversial in Canada. The Progressive Conservative government of Prime Minister John Diefenbaker initially agreed to deploy the missiles, and shortly thereafter controversially scrapped the Avro Arrow, a supersonic manned interceptor aircraft, arguing that the missile program made the Arrow unnecessary. In April 1957, British minister of defence Duncan Sandys published a white paper arguing that all British fighter projects should be cancelled in favour of ground-launched missiles. The paper spelled the end of many British aircraft manufacturers. The United States Air Force cancelled similar interceptor plans.
Canada still needed jet interceptors. Two years later the RCAF took possession of 66 used McDonnell F-101 Voodoo jet fighters from the United States, a plane they had rejected as inadequate before commissioning the Arrow. The planes were eventually given to Canada in exchange for Canadians staffing radar bases on the Arctic's Pinetree Line. The Voodoos were eventually replaced by the MacDonnell-Douglas CF-18 Hornets used today. Between 1982 and 1988 the Canadian government purchased 138 Hornets from the United States at a cost of $5.2 billion. A key reason for cancelling the Arrow was the mounting cost of the program. Though the Arrow was an expensive plane, critics of the cancellation later argued that development could have been completed for the cost of the cancellation fees alone.
The HF-24 MARUT was designed around the afterburner-capable Orpheus B.Or.12 engine, which was being developed for the NATO light-weight strike fighter and also the proposed Gnat Mk.2 interceptor. Unfortunately, the UK authorities cancelled it and India was stuck with the non-afterburning Orpheus B.OR.2 Mk.703 engine.
An Indian effort to fit afterburners to this engine resulted in between 18 per cent and 27 per cent increase in thrust, but the loss of the test aircraft with Group Captain Suranjan Das in 1970, ended this effort. An attempt to re-power the Marut using afterburner-capable Brander E-300 turbojets (developed for the Egyptian Helwan HA-300 interceptor), was potentially promising. However, form drag was considerable and the 1967 6-day war ended this development.
An attempt was made to integrate Adour turbofans (used in the Jaguars and Hawks) was complicated by IAF demand that the thrust of the Adour had be increased by 20%. So the B.199 turbofan was seriously considered for a Marut Mk.3 – the HF-73, but the IAF was never entirely supportive of the project. The licence-production of MiG-21s sounded the death knell for any further development.
As MiG-21s were augmented by MiG-23s and later MiG-27s and Jaguars, the IAF was not supportive of continuing the development of the Marut. While licence-manufacture continued (with focus on greater indigenous content by value) to meet the requirements of the IAF, HAL’s potential was squandered. Successive governments failed to seize the initiative, and in so doing, design expertise, infrastructure and experience were frittered away. Thus design initiatives in HAL became discouraging and met with no support.
HF-24 Marut was India original interceptor & escort fighter, the chief engineer was Dr. Kurt Tank (creator FW-190 and other successful aircraft of the Second World) who was Germany Focke-Wulf's main engineer. This plane intended simple maintenance for poor technology air bases and suitable mechanism for high altitude air bases. Its high-pressure hydraulic system was prone to frequent failures and its canopy and ejection systems had serious defects. Their ability to fly at over 600 K at tree top levels, however, stood them in good stead and helped them escape attacking Sabres.
When the French followed up on the Avro Arrow idea and started to develop a counterpart -- the Mirage fighter. After the Six days war, France cancelled the order of Mirage one-sidedly in spite of many of them were ready to deliver. Because Israel winned too much at that war, and Mirages remarked important strategy, French needed to save Arab countries, an important customer of France. Another side, this meant a serious crisis for Israel. As to say about U.S. jet fighters, they were too heavy, complicated and expensive. Israel wanted simple lightweight combat fighter. Then Israel decided to make jet fighter themselves. But it needed much time and money, too. So, like a spy drama, they got blueprints of Mirage in Switzerland strictly.
Back in India, HF-24 Marut experienced engine prototype version E-300, created by Austrian and German engineers under the direction of Ferdinand Brandner (in the late forties - early fifties working in the USSR Brandner and his colleagues developed a turboprop engine NK-12, which after finishing the OKB Kuznetsov still stands bomber Tu-95). According to the complex political and economic reasons, the Indian government refused to E-300. Some European manufacturers were not willing to supply matching engines to India for Marut HF-24. This place was taken by the British low-power engines Rolls-Royce Orpheus 703 at a cost of Rs 7 lakh per engine. But after the company's factory in Egypt was bombed by the Israelis in an air attack the IAF re-designed the aircraft, fitting two GNAT engines on it.
HF-24 was intended to use engines with more power. The Rolls-Royce RB.153 was considered for a while for upgraded HF-24 MARUT, but Hindustan Aeronautics was neither able to accept the terms of the proposed contract nor, at the time, was ready to consider the major redesign of the fuselage that adoption of the RB.153 would have entailed. But instead of embedded in the aerodynamics of the aircraft maximum speed in two Mach, HF-24 proved to subsonic.
Without becoming an interceptor, the aircraft is being used successfully as a fighter-bomber in the war of 1971. In the event that by the early 1980s, the Air Staff requirements for a TASA (Tactical Attack and Strike Aircraft) and a DPSA (Deep Penetration and Strike Aircraft) were fulfilled by foreign aircraft, the need for a upgraded Maruts became somewhat superfluous. And by the mid-1980s enough Jaguars and MiG-23BN/27s were joining the IAF, that the Marut programme no longer remained viable. As such, 147 "Maruts" were built.
Russian Su-7 combat fighter was also in IAF's service. It was rugged in its simplicity but its shortcomings included short range and low weapon load. India did not have any quality long-range fighter like the Tornados or Mirage-III/V. Additionally, the west has moved from being aircraft centric to a weapon and sensor centric planning. These fighters were no match for the targeting of new powerful radars, jammers and US AAA Sidewinder heatseeker, which had no alternative to it at the time. The Indian military defence planners didn't have the strategic foresight to direct innovation in the right direction.
After WW II, all German designers and technologists were prohibited by the Allies to undertake any research for defence purposes. Prof. Messerschmitt was even limited on his movements within Germany. He set up a new firm Hispano Aviacion in Spain and started designing an ultra-light fighter aircraft in 1951. Only a delta shaped plywood glider without a tail was built.
In 1960, the Egyptian government purchased the documents for the HA 300, the Helwan Aircraft (originally Hispano Aviacion) of Spain, refunded all of the development costs up until that point.
The Jumo 222 was developed and was the strongest German aircraft engine of the Second World War. Brandner later went to the Soviet Union where he developed the stronger propeller turbine jet air engine in the world, the Kuznetow NK-12M with 8,800 kW. The Austrian jet engine expert Ferdinand Brandner was invited to develop a new turbojet for the new fighter.
The Egyptians had no qualified test pilots, and the project needed one. The German experts at Helwan had wanted a European test pilot, but none was available. So they turned to India. Group Captain Kapil Bhargava of the IAF flew this last aircraft designed by Prof. Willy Messerschmitt (a contemporary of Prof. Kurt W. Tank).
A corresponding contract between India and Egypt was signed in September 1964. India helped fund development of the E-300 engine in order to acquire a new power plant for its HF-24 Marut jet fighter (which was bigger than HA-300). The E-300 engine was eventually used in the Indian HF-24 Marut fighter.
The Soviet, the sole supplier of weapons to Egypt, pressured to stop the program or the Soviet would not support them during the Six Day war of attrition with Israel (in which Egypt was soon defeated). This was to prevent the HA-300 to compete against the Soviet Mig-21 (which could not carry enough fuel). This ambitious project had cost the Egyptian government more than 135 million Egyptian pounds.
Till the 60s, HAL’s list of achievements boasted the HT-2, Pushpak, Krishak and Basant. During the period of the mid-sixties an Advanced Projects Group, headed by Mr Raj Mahindra, was assigned the task of focussing on and overseeing feasibility studies for likely military and civil aircraft.
This group initially conceived of the Ground Attack Fighter I (GAF I) powered by an M45 engine which was itself being developed as a joint venture between Bristol Siddeley and SNECMA and would have a radius of action of about 150 miles.
There was also a study made for a STOL transport cum freighter, as a civil airliner with a 100 seat capacity and also as a replacement for the Packet, Dakota and Caribou. The configuration was for using four Rolls-Royce turbofan engines and another configuration powered by four turboprop engines. The design configuration was not only contemporary but had advanced features which were later seen to have been adopted by advanced aerospace companies in the West.
In 1967, the Group took up studies for an interceptor – ground attack aircraft. The multi-role F 4 Phantom was the role model of this study. The GAF II, as it was referred to, was put through wind tunnel tests and the “configuration presented a very good basis on which to launch a prototype development effort. HAL lacked the infrastructure to build upon it. The HAL study completed in 1970. It did not apparently find favour and Air HQ issued a firm requirement for an Advanced Strike Aircraft (ASA).
ASRs formulated at Air HQs in the 1970s, which discussed the gradual replacements for the MiG 21FL, Su-7, Hunter, HF 24, Canberra, the Vampire trainer and the aging transport fleet. These in turn were to be replaced by a single supersonic tactical airstrike aircraft (TASA), supersonic deep penetration aircraft, the AJT and versatile STOL transport aircraft respectively.
In 1973 there was an offer from Germany to jointly develop the HF 24 into the Hindustan Supersonic Strike Aircraft labelled the HSS 73 later to be known as the HF-73. This would retain the original mainframe, with radical changes to the fuselage, air intakes and the centre wing section. The cockpit was to be modified for better visibility, fuel capacity increased, and with a completely new avionics suite and powered by the Rolls Royce RB 199-34R engine would have a radius of action double that of the HF 24. The project had to be abandoned because of non-clearance of the RB 199 by the UK and Germany who were involved in the engine development for the Tornado MRCA programme.
In the mid-70s, the IAF showed interest in development of an air superiority fighter. In 1974 HAL undertook designing and studying a configuration for the Air Superiority Fighter (ASF). The ASF 300 was considered with either an Indian GTX or a SNECMA engine. The configuration proposed by HAL did not meet the ASR.
As a result, the Jewish state is no longer able to supply its military aviation Mirage fighters and spare parts. The authorities decided to proceed with the development of a hunter of domestic manufacture.
The Israeli government then launched two projects:
A Raam the project, construction of an apparatus according to the plans of the Mirage 5 (it becomes the Nesher), the Raam B project, which then meant changing the ATAR 9C reactor by the General Electric J79 for Raam project A.
April 19, 1971, Alfred Frauenknecht, Swiss engineer, employed by the Swiss firm Sulzer licensed manufacturer Dassault Mirage IIIS, confessed to having sold the secret plans of this unit to Israel for the sum of $ 200,000
Mirage 5's chief drawback was its power plant - the French Atar 9 engine - which provided relatively low thrust, compared to the large amount of fuel it consumed.
In the 1950s Northrop Aircraft—which became Northrop Corporation in 1958—successfully applied the concept of low life-cycle cost to the development and marketing of the N-156 (first flown in 1959), a lightweight, supersonic jet fighter. Made (as was the the Mustang) to be easy to produce, easy to fly and easy to maintain. The USAF saw in the Northrop fighter the perfect replacement for their aging Lockheed T-33 trainer fleet. So the design of the N-156 was modified to be an advanced trainer with supersonic capabilities. The result was the T-38 Talon interceptor, which still goes strong after 50 years. It was ready to replace worldwide aging fleets of F-86 Sabres, F-84 Thunderstreaks and Hawker Hunters. In Canada the T-38 Talon was modified as the CF-5 or Canadair CF-116. For the Dutch it became the Canadair NF-5. The Dutch have flown their NF-5 fleet for over 20 years before selling their aircraft to Turkey and Greece who are still flying them today.
The Soviets continued to sell newer aircraft designs to their clients, placing allies of the U.S. at a disadvantage. Denied by the U.S., countries were turning to other vendors for modern fighters, notably France's Dassault Mirage 2000. When the Kennedy administration entered office in 1961, the U.S. Department of Defense was instructed to find an inexpensive fighter aircraft that the United States could offer to its allies through the Mutual Defense Assistance Act. As the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 become more common, the U.S. Air Force initiated the International Fighter Aircraft (IFA) program to provide an equivalent to allies.
Northrop F-5 closely resembled the USAF Northrop T-38 trainer, was suitable for various types of ground-support and aerial intercept missions, including those conducted from unpaved fields in combat areas. Taking what they've learned from the "Skoshi Tiger" and from the Canadair CF-5 and NF-5, Northrop's next move was to make a sort of "best of" package. It had the wider fuselage of the CF-5, the redesigned wings and arrester hook of the NF-5 and the American Avionics of the Skoshi Tiger, the resulting aircraft was to be the most potent offspring of the N-156 yet: the F-5E tiger. F-5 Tiger II was an upgrade of the F-5A (21) "Freedom fighter" aircraft developed by Northrop Grumman in early 1959.
Now you wouldn't be able to tell right away but the Hornet does share a couple of key features with the N-156 family, the nose and the design of the wings are the most obvious but it also shares the idea: of a light fighter powered by two light jet engines. In tandem with the Hornet, Northrop also designed a new version of the N-156 and further evolution of the F-5 Tiger II, which began in 1975, resulted into the F-5G, later re-named the F-20 Tigershark. It had the state of the art fly-by-wire avionics of the F-18 and the same engine.
F-20 became competitive with contemporary fighter designs such as the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, but was much less expensive to purchase and operate. The F-20 would also make greater usage of composite materials in its construction. The F-20 was projected to consume 53% less fuel, require 52% less maintenance manpower, had 63% lower operating and maintenance costs and had four times the reliability of average front-line designs of the era and fire BVR missiles. It also had the ability to get airborne in record time. The disadvantages were short-ranged and less payload, although it could carry a fairly diverse armament.
It was as capable in combat with the latest Soviet aircraft and could be sold to foreign nations as it did not have sensitive front-line technologies and so did not have the risk of significant technologies falling into Soviet hands. Northrop had high hopes for the F-20 in the international market, but policy changes following Ronald Reagan's election meant the F-20 had to compete for sales against aircraft like the F-16, the USAF's latest fighter design. US Air Forces desire to sell F-16 Falcons to foreign markets meant Northrop wasn't even allowed to advertise the Tigershark on their own.
On Oct. 10, 1984, test pilot Darrell Cornell demonstrated the first F-20A in a high-speed, low-altitude flyover at Korea’s Suwon airfield. Cornell threw his F-20A into a climbing roll with flaps and landing gear extended, when the aircraft stalled and crashed. Cornell was thrown clear and killed instantly. An investigation cleared the F-20A of any design or mechanical flaw. It was found that Cornell had blacked out due to excessive G’s pulled in the acrobatic demonstration routine. The phenomenon of gravity-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) was then receiving widespread attention. Five months later, on May 14, 1985, Tigershark No. 2 crashed at Goose Bay, Labrador. Pilot David Barnes (1934-1985), was killed. The Canadian accident report called G-LOC the cause of the crash.
Both F-16 and F-20 began as no-frills lightweight fighters and gradually became heavier and more complex. After six years with no buyers, in late 1986 Northrop cancelled the $1.2 billion project. Northrop was reluctant to protest perceived favoritism of the F-16 in fear of losing support for the project for the Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit stealth bomber.
The Grumman X-31 also proved to be the very last modification of the N-156 to be made in the USA. In Iran however it was a different story. The locally developed HESA Saeqeh (Thunderbolt) modifies the N-156 once more. The Saeqeh light striker jet, has twin tail fins (displaying the family resemblance between the F-5E and the F-18 Hornet more obviously) and as thought avionics based on Iran's MiG 29 fleet.
It was an outstanding fighter, in fact until the F-22 and F-35 came along, there was nothing that could out maneuver a F-5 or F-20; but in the end the Northrop F-20A Tigershark was the right aircraft at the wrong time. The problem wasn't with the aircraft but with how it was sold and because the US government was reluctant to promote it.
The P-38 shot down more Japanese aircraft than any other USAAF fighter in WW II. It was flown by both of the top American aces of the war. Throughout the war, the P-38 remained one of the fastest climbing American fighters. Its incredible range became legendary and its twin engines particularly suited it for long overwater flights. This last point is striking, for the P-38 was not designed for long range missions. While the P-38 was produced in large numbers during World War II, it was not designed for mass production.
It started in January of 1937, when the Army Air Corps circulated to aircraft manufacturers a specification for a new pursuit plane for the "interception and attack of hostile aircraft at high altitude". They wanted a max. speed of 360 m.p.h. at 20,000 ft., and climb from takeoff to 20,000 ft. in 6 minutes. There were other details, but the point is that the demand was for a high performance bomber-interceptor. The government anticipated an order for a maximum of 50 planes, so suitability for mass production was not a consideration.
The new Allison V-1710 had developed 1000 hp. in tests and was chosen by the Lockheed design team for the new fighter. The final layout of the new twin engine fighter (called the Model 22 by Lockheed) had counter rotating props that eliminated the torque related control problems that plagued many contemporary fighters (such as the German ME 109), twin tail booms and a central fuselage for the pilot. It was powerful, heavy and had a wing loading far in excess of any contemporary fighter, but maneuverability was not deemed particularly necessary for an interceptor.
The P-38 was one of the first airplanes fast enough to encounter "compressibility" (more properly called shock stall) problems in high altitude, high speed dives. The basic problem was that in a sustained dive from high altitude, speed quickly built to the point that the airflow over parts of the airplane (such as the upper surface of the wing) reached supersonic speeds. Not that the airplane itself was breaking the sound barrier, but the airflow in certain places was. A shock wave forms. This destroys the lift over that part of the wing. It also caused the air flowing off the wing to affect the tail in an unusual manner: it increased lift at the tail (Which is normally negative--an airplane is balanced by the weight in front of its wings, a down force; the lift of its wings, an up force; the negative lift of its tail, a down force--imagine a teeter/totter).
The big radial engine fighters would dive uncontrollably toward the earth until they reached the thicker air at lower altitudes. There two things happened:
- The speed of sound increases as an inverse function of altitude (that is, the speed of sound goes up as the altitude gets lower);
- The increased drag of the thick air on their large frontal surfaces would tend to limit further speed increases.
The result was that when the speed of sound went up as the airplane got lower, the shock waves started to dissipate (the airflow over the wings began to fall back below the increased speed of sound), and as the increased drag started to affect the airplane, the speed of the airflow also decreased, and the shock waves dissipated more. Finally the pilot would begin to get some control back, and still pulling back as hard as he could on the stick, would wind up in a screaming zoom climb (unless he was unfortunate enough to have begun the process over mountains high enough to intrude before he reached the thicker air of lower altitudes).
The P-38 was not the only airplane to encounter this effect in dives from very high altitudes (where the air is thin), the P-47 and F4U both suffered the same problem. However, the way in which the P-38 differed was in its extremely "clean" (streamlined) design. Its drag was so low that the thicker lower air often (not always, some pilots did survive compressibility dives in P-38's) did not have enough effect for the pilot to regain control in time: the P-38 just dove straight into the ground like an arrow. The problem was magnified by a "flutter" (increasing amplitude vibration) set up in the tail by these excessive speeds, which often caused the tail to come off.
In September 1939, the Army ordered 66 more for service. In August 1940, the Army ordered over 600 more P-38s. The war was on in Europe and China and the P-38 was the only high performance fighter available.
The P-38D appeared in August of 1941. This was the first model to benefit from changing the angle of the tail, and re-balancing the elevator, which largely eliminated tail flutter. The "P-38D" also introduced self sealing gas tanks. The "P-38F" got a 1,325 hp Allison engine and reverse the fortunes of AAF fighter pilots facing the previously unbeatable Zero. P-38G models had strengthened Fowler flaps which could be used at combat speeds up to 250 m.p.h. to tighten the turning radius. In Europe, pilots of the big Lightnings now found that they could turn inside of the smaller German fighters, particularly at low altitudes. They also had more powerful engines (a 100 hp increase). The "H" model was similar.
The P-38J incorporated many improvements, including more powerful engines, improved superchargers, relocation of the intercoolers from the leading edge of the wings to beneath the nose of the engines, a bulletproof windscreen, and, at the J-25-LO model, the factory installed dive flaps. Speed was up to 426 m.p.h., and best climb to 3,900 ft./min. It would climb to 20,000 ft. in 5.9 minutes. The "K" was a special high altitude model, and the subsequent P-38L of 1944 was the final and best Lightning. It incorporated many of the improvements of the "J" and "K" models.
At the end of the war, orders for 1,887 were cancelled.
These OKB consisted of German designers captured from the former Junkers, and Soviet. The purpose was to develop derivatives turbojet engines of German engines Jumo 004 and BMW 003, the most advanced aircraft engines of their time. The Soviets were concerned, then, with its strategic aircraft. The best of these aircraft was then the Tupolev Tu-4, a revese engineered copy of the already outdated American bomber Boeing B-29 (replaced by Convair B-36 and experimental prototype Boeing B-47).
Back then, turbojets development were in its infancy and were characterized by huge consumption and low efficiency. On the other hand the disadvantages of turboprops were that they had greater mechanical complexity, higher weight and the aerodynamic limitations of the propellers.
To withstand higher turbine inlet temperature, which means improved power utilization, the turbines have been constructed with a new alloy, nonferrous mainly composed of nickel and chromium with additions of other metals like cobalt, titanium and aluminum. Such an alloy is known, and commercially registered in the West as Nimonic.
The result of this work was designated TV-12 developed by a German ex-Junkers team under Ferdinand Brandner. In 1950 the first batch of Russian jet engine VC-1 was designed. In April 1954 aviation TV-12 engine batch production started. It was later rename NK-12 (Nikolai Kuznetsov). The NK-12 proved to be a real economic engine, and extremely reliable. The efficiency compressors have 0.88, and turbines, of 0.94, the most efficient to date on any motor reaction.
NK-12 is by a wide margin the most powerful turboprop engine ever built, only recently the Progress D-27 and Europrop TP400 come somewhat close. It powered the Tupolev Tu-95 / Tu-142 bomber, the Tupolev Tu-114 airliner NK-12MV (still the world's fastest propeller-driven aircraft), and the Antonov An-22 Antheus NK-12MA — the world's largest aircraft at the time. It has also been used to power several types of amphibious assault craft, such as the A-90 Orlyonok "Ekranoplan".
The supersonic propellers, however, although they are efficient, they generate a large noise. The Tu-95 are perhaps the noisiest aircraft in history, and legend has it that can be heard even inside submerged submarines.
Compared to its most direct rival, the Boeing B-52H American, the Tu-95 (which 90 tons) is 50 knots slower and has mileage equivalent than the B-52 (which is 220 tons). We must remember, however, that the B-52H has no less than 8 turbofan engines of 17,000 lbf thrust each, against four turboprop Tu-95.
India and Pakistan had them from 1942, 1952 till 1975.
During the Korean War and to a lesser extent, the Vietnam war, T-6s were pressed into service. These aircraft were designated T-6 “Mosquito”s.
T6-D Texan “Hog Wild Gunner”
The HAL HUL-26 Hindustan Pushpak was an Indian two-seater light cabin monoplane, built by Hindustan Aeronautics between 1958 and 1968, was very similar to the Super Chief. was a wire-braced high-wing monoplane powered by a Continental four-cylinder horizontally-opposed air-cooled engine providing a top speed of 144 kmh and a range of 400 km.
Some sources say that the Pushpak was produced under license from Trytek, while others suggest that the Pushpak design resulted from reverse engineering. The Pushpak can be identified by the smaller rudder surface which is squared off at mid-fin and the larger vertical tail that is found on the 11CC.
The Aeronca Chief is a single-engine, two-seat, light aircraft with fixed conventional landing gear, which entered production in the United States in 1945.
Designed for flight training and personal use, the Chief was produced in the United States between 1946 and 1950. The Chief was known as a basic gentle flyer with good manners, intended as a step up from the 7AC Champion which was designed for flight training.
Captain Jamshed Kaikobad (Jimmy) Munshi, the first post-independence Chief Test Pilot (CTP) of HAL had already distinguished himself by ferrying 42 junked B-24 Liberators from Kanpur to Bangalore, a distance of almost 1100 statute miles (955 nm). Capt Jimmy Munshi had also done excellent work on overhauled Dakotas. Jimmy's successor Mr Namjoshi was killed in an HT-2 while practicing for a public demonstration.
Young VM Ghatge obtained his doctorate in Aeronautical Engineering at Gottingen in Germany under the famous Dr Ludwig Prandtl. He joined HAL in its earliest days and deigned the G-1, a ten-seat glider in 1941. But once HAL was dedicated solely to war work, he went off to the Indian Institute of Science (also in Bangalore) to start an Aeronautical Engineering department. Dr Ghatge rejoined HAL and became its first Chief Designer after India's independence when Royal Air Force handed over HAL to Indian control.