ROCOCO Art- In the 18th century, Baroque Art was replaced by the more elegant and elaborate Rococo style. it was sensuous and light-hearted paintings and landscapes. it was a feminine oriented style. Characterized by elegant, refined yet playful subject matters, Boucher's style became the epitome of the court of Louis XV. His works typically utilized decorative designs to illustrate stories with shepherds, goddesses and cupids playing against a pink and blue sky. These works mirrored the frolicsome and ornamented decadence of the French aristocracy of the time.
Dutch Golden Age painting BY 'DUTCH MASTERS'- these painting followed many of the tendencies that dominated Baroque art in other parts of Europe, such as Caravaggesque and naturalism, but was the leader in developing the subjects of still life, landscape, and genre painting. Portraiture were also popular, but History painting — traditionally the most-elevated genre struggled to find buyers.
This trend, along with the lack of Counter-Reformation church patronage that dominated the arts in Catholic Europe, resulted in the great number of "scenes of everyday life" or genre paintings, and other non-religious pictures.
ROMANTICISM- exalted individualism, subjectivism, irrationalism, imagination, emotions and nature - emotion over reason and senses over intellect. Since they were in revolt against the orders. Romantic artists were fascinated by the nature, the genius, their passions and inner struggles, their moods, mental potentials, the heroes. They investigated human nature and personality, the folk culture, the national and ethnic origins, the medieval era, the exotic, the remote, the mysterious, the occult, the diseased, and even satanic. Romantic artist had a role of an ultimate egoistic creator, with the spirit above strict formal rules and traditional procedures. He had imagination as a gateway to transcendent experience and spiritual truth.
For the Schlegel brothers, it was a product of Christianity. The culture of the Middle Ages created a Romantic sensibility which differed from the Classical. Christian culture dealt with a struggle between the heavenly perfection and the human experience of inadequacy and guilt. This sense of struggle and ever-present dark forces was allegedly present in Medieval culture. While this view partly explains Romantic fascination with the Middle Ages, the actual causes of the Romantic movement itself correspond to the sense of rapid, dynamic social change that culminated in the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era.
NEO CLASSICISM- The movement revived ancient Greek and Roman stylization in European art. Neoclassical art emphasized courage, sacrifice, nationalism, and tradition. it was claimed that the most important elements of classical art were "noble simplicity and calm grandeur." they took extra care to depict the costumes, settings, and details of classical subject matter with as much accuracy as possible. Much of the subject matter was derived from classical history and mythology. The movement emphasized line quality over colour, light, and atmosphere.
The discovery of ancient artefacts at the ruins of Herculaneum and Pompeii was a big inspiration to neoclassicism. It was also created to replace the ostentatious baroque and rococo art styles. The movement started as a rebellion against the rococo style, which symbolised French aristocracy. After the French Revolution, France became a democracy, putting an end to aristocratic rule. The new leaders of France wished to model the government on the high virtues and moral principles of classical Rome that became the favoured design trend during that time.
The height of Neoclassicism was displayed in the paintings of Jacques-Louis David and Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres.
It is an extremely rare survival of a late Medieval religious panel painting from England.
The diptych was painted for King Richard II of England who is depicted kneeling before the Virgin and Child in what is known as a votive portrait.
He was one of the first to use Linear perspective in his painting, employing techniques such as vanishing point in art for the first time.
He also moved away from the International Gothic style and elaborate ornamentation of artists like Gentile da Fabriano to a more naturalistic mode that employed perspective and chiaroscuro for greater realism.
He was the best painter of his generation because of his skill at recreating life-like figures and movements as well as a convincing sense of three-dimensionality.
The Expulsion from the Garden of Eden is one of Masaccio’s most famous master pieces. The oil painting showed the Masaccio’s art proposition in oil painting style. Viewing from the oil painting technique, Adam and Eve were two walking figures; their movements make the painting was difficult to paint.
Three centuries after the fresco was painted, Cosimo III de' Medici, in line with contemporary ideas of decorum, ordered that fig leaves be added to conceal the genitals of the figures. These were eventually removed in the 1980s when the painting was fully restored and cleaned.
Fiesole is sometimes misinterpreted as being part of his formal name, but it was merely the name of the town where he took his vows as a Dominican friar, and was used by contemporaries to separate him from other Fra Giovannis.
Through Fra Angelico's pupil Benozzo Gozzoli's careful portraiture and technical expertise in the art of fresco we see a link to Domenico Ghirlandaio, who in turn painted extensive schemes for the wealthy patrons of Florence, and through Ghirlandaio to his pupil Michelangelo and the High Renaissance.
Fra Filippo Lippi (also called Lippo Lippi) was an Italian painter of the Italian Quattrocento in 15th century.
Vasari reported that, probably, by 1462 Sandro Botticelli was apprenticed to Fra Filippo Lippi; many of his early works have been attributed to the elder master, and attributions continue to be uncertain. Influenced also by the monumentality of Masaccio's painting, it was from Lippi that Botticelli learned a more intimate and detailed manner.
Italian Baroque art was not widely different to Italian Renaissance painting (growing out of the artificial decadence of Mannerism) but the color palette was richer and darker and the theme of religion was more popular.
A prolific artist, Caravaggio worked quickly, using live models and using the end of his brush handle to score basic outlines of his work. His preference for working directly onto the canvas was alien to his peers.
His work is characterized by an overwhelming beauty and an honesty about the entire spectrum of life (from the physical beauty of plump cheeked musicians to the death and decay of religious figures).
He turned proto-reality into a thing of beauty on canvas. Adding to that he developed a unique painterly way of using light (and its absence) to convey these same life emotions on the canvas.
Caravaggio was famous for chiaroscuro ("light dark" in Italian), a technique that suggests a three dimensional figure by the varying use of tones of light and dark paint.
In "Death of the Virgin," for example, the light strikes with brutal honesty upon the old, plain face of the corpse that once was the mother of God. Contrast this scene with the normal depiction of the Virgin Mary ascending in bright light into the heavens.
Decay is also an under-note for "Bacchus," a painting in which the youthful god of wine offers viewers a cup of wine, to partake in pleasure, even while corruption and decay lay close by. Within his canvas, Michelangelo Caravaggio uses worm holes in an apple and an overripe pomegranate to remind us of the transience of life and pleasure.