Light cavalry uses their speed to race ahead and outmaneuver foes but examples like the Panzer II or M3 Stuart lost out time and time again when confronted with heavier tanks and fortified strong points due to a lack of firepower. However, light tanks aren’t really meant to win tank battles or fortified sieges. You win by bringing a light tank to a gunfight—somewhere the enemy isn’t prepared to fight tanks at all e.g Indian Army's M5 Stuart light tanks of the 7th Cavalry in first Indo-Pakistani war in 1948
“We’ve benefited from not requiring contractor support to run and operate this system. I generally agree with a modular platform, as long as it doesn’t require extensive contractor support and crazy training.”
"Amateurs talk about tactics, but professionals study logistics."
The very concept of "main battle tanks" was applied with the T-64A tank, armed with 125-mm smooth-bore gun.
Engine's Horse-Power loses as much as 25% power due to lighter atmosphere in high-altitude.
One Armoured Brigade comprises 2 MBT Regiments & 1 BMP-2 ICV Regiment. One Mechanised Regiment comprises 2 BMP-2 Regiments & 1 MBT Regiment.
In effect, the World War II concept of the unarmored light vehicle for moving men and material around the battlefield has been radically changed. The objective of armored operations are to destroy enemy assets like artillery and cut-off their supplies. Soviet Union first introduced the large scale concept of the Infantry Fighting Vehicle in 1966 with the BMP-1 which combined the fire-power of a light tank with Armored Personnel Carrier (APC). It evolved into the modern BMP-3 in 1987. The west took notice and developed their own Infantry Fighting Vehicle. In Iraq, it was demonstrated that you can fight your way through a hostile population on a regular basis and defeat a guerrilla force constantly attacking your tactical and logistical vehicles. This has never worked before but it worked this time, in part because U.S. troops promptly armored their hummers and trucks and quickly developed "road warrior" tactics that defeated roadside and suicide bombs. Even though these bombs created a lot of American casualties, that casualty rate was a third of what it was in Vietnam and World War II. This was in large part because of the armored hummers and trucks. Few people outside the military noted this event, a watershed moment in military history. But it was recognized within the military and produced this sharp shift in design philosophy for tactical trucks.
U.S. variant, M68 on M60 Patton light tank and (older model) M1 Abrams MBT
Germany on Leopard 1 MBT
Japan (licenced) on Type 74 MBT
Israel on both Merkava MBT
China (licenced from Austria) variants, ZTL-11 and (improved) ZPT-83 on Type 69/79 light tanks; and longer version of the gun, ZPT-94 on ZTZ-88A and ZTZ-59D MBT.
India, Egypt & Iraq's T-54 and T-55 light tanks.
Currently, 105 mm gun is being operated from U.S Air Force AC-130 gunships.
8x8 Armoured Personnel Carriers (APC)
- Al Fahd Saudi Arabia
Having acquired almost every Western European military vehicle maker during the late 1990’s until the 2000’s, General Dynamics European Land Systems (GDELS) manufactures and sells both the Pandur and the Swiss Piranha in 6×6 and 8×8 configurations.
The OT-64 / SKOT armored personnel carrier was jointly developed by Poland and Czechoslovakia in the early 1960s. The OT-64 was the answer to the Soviet BTR-60P. Contrary to this the OT-64 used a diesel set in place of a petrol engine. That diminished the danger of fire and at the same time increased the range. The main advantage in relation to the Russian counterpart was the full-armored interior. The entrance is at the rear of the vehicle via twin doors. The OT-64 had an NBC protection facility and night-vision equipment. It also has central inflation for all wheels which can be controlled by driver during a drive. The OT-64 was air-transportable and amphibious, for the transport on water used two propellers installed at the back. It is worth mentioning that a rear-mounted engine of the BTR-60 series APCs was considered a significant drawback, as troops had to dismount via hull sides and roof hatches under fire. The Czech Republic replaced it with Pandur II and Poland with Rosomak.
The Terrex AV-81 vehicle was initially developed by Timoney Technology Ltd in Ireland for ST Kinetics (a subsidiary of ST Engineering) in Singapore. In 2003, an agreement was struck with Otokar of Turkey for the development of a Turkish specific variant, initially known as the Terrex AV-82, but eventually given the name Yavuz by Otokar.
Frontal arc protects from 12.7-mm armor-piercing rounds. Vehicle has a V-shaped hull, which provides improved protection against landmines. It weighs an estimated 25 to 30 tonnes on an 8x8 wheeled chassis with modern armour.
2016: 8x8 Sentinel 2 (or Terrex 3) APC (has an Elbit turret) is competing for the Australian Army's Land 400 programme. Terrex 3 weighs 35t and is not amphibious until the armor is removed, however, it cannot be up-armored to the max as its basic design is optimised for amphibious operation.
The vehicle has a very good level of mine protection and can withstand explosions of up to 10 kilograms (22 lb) TNT. Its STANAG 4569 Level 6 provides protection against 30mm armour-piercing discarding sabot (APFSDS) rounds over the frontal arc of the CRV, 90° left and right at best or 30° left and right at worst. So at 90° this not just the traditional ‘frontal arc’ that needs to be covered but also the turret and hull flanks.
The Taliban began calling it the "Green Devil" and it successfully shrugged off RPG hits on multiple engagements and even IED blasts. Unlike the US Army's Stryker experience in Afghanistan, the Havoc did its job and did it well. Its combat proven, modular, has several versions, can help us achieve the vaunted "single family of vehicles" concept.
8x8 Patria or KTO Rosomak (Wolverine) is an all-terrain, modular APC and IFV types are produced by the Finnish Patria and is based on the chassis of a the Terminator light tank. Arguably it is the second most successful 8×8 platform in the world. The vehicle has a very good level of mine protection. Another important feature is the very good mobility (combining speed, agility, and crew comfort) in rough terrain, enabled by the sophisticated but rugged hydraulic suspension adjusting each wheel individually. The US Marines is planning to obtain 600 MPC vehicles.
Armatec is responsible for the armour on U.S. AMV vehicles.
Ever since its adoption by the US Marine Corps, up to 9 different variants of the LAV-series have emerged. The 25mm cannon has a range of 3,000 meters, and has proved very useful in combat. These vehicles cost about a million dollars each.
(The Mk44 30mm Bushmaster cannon is much more important for Strykers, which currently have a 12.7mm machine-gun, as it is much more effective against light armored vehicles.)
Based on General Dynamics’ own estimate, some 9,000 LAV-series vehicles are in use around the world. The LAV-series is deployed by the militaries of Canada, Saudi Arabia, Australia, New Zealand, Colombia, and Chile.
The most heavily armed Stryker, the M1128 Mobile Gun System (MGS), armed with a low-recoil 105-mm gun, is intended to provide infantry fire support, not to fight tanks. M1126 Stryker (with double V hull) was developed from the Teledyne Vehicle Systems (now L3 Communications Combat Propulsion Systems) Expeditionary light Tank developed for the Armored Gun System competition in the 1980s.
The unmanned turret system of the Stryker couldn't fire more than a handful of times before it jammed. The operator would need to expose himself by climbing on to the turret to unjam it. The autoloader also was problematic and required a redesign. It couldn't be reloaded from inside and the coaxial MG wasn't mated to the main gun so it wasn't coaxial or accurate.
For vehicles weighing 10-20 tons, tracked vehicles have better cross-country mobility in sand, mud and snow than wheeled vehicles, while wheeled vehicles have much better speed and ride quality over primary and secondary roads than tracked vehicles.
The experiences of Afghanistan and Iraq appeared to confirm the belief in the wisdom of transformation to meet the threats of the 21st century. For instance, both the Army and Marine Corps found the need for more armor. In particular, the need arose for medium-armor units; those with armored vehicles heavier than the Humvee and M-113 Armored Personnel Carrier, but lighter than the Abrams Main Battle Tank or Bradley Fighting Vehicle. A first step in that transformation is the creation of medium-weight combat brigades built around a new fighting vehicle, the Stryker.
During and after the American Civil War, many military leaders looked at cavalry differently. The idea was that a horse was there for transportation and that was it. Even cavalry leaders such as Gen. Philip Sheridan believed horses were for nothing but transport. The M-113 was a part of that. Designed in the 1940s and 1950s, the M-113 was an armored personnel carrier. It was a full-track vehicle and hundreds of thousands of them were built. Variants of the vehicle are still in service as emergency vehicles.
But wheeled vehicles offer many advantages. While other military organizations had a wheeled armored personnel carrier - most notably the Marine Corps' light armored vehicle - the US Army did not, until the Stryker. The Stryker vehicle is an eight-wheeled infantry carrier. The vehicle is designed to get light infantry from point A to point B on the battlefield. Upon arrival, the troopers dismount the vehicle and fight on foot.
The difference between a Stryker and an M-113 is like the difference between a Yugo and a Rolls Royce Silver Ghost. The first thing you notice about the Stryker is that there is a steering wheel. The M-113 had two sticks coming up from the floor, with each one controlling a track. Visibility out of the driver's hatch is good. It's a 2,000 percent improvement over the M-113, most notably because you are buttoned up. There is also a video camera that helps the driver.
Handling characteristics of the Stryker are good, even up to 50 mph. Drivers might have been able to get an M-113 up to 50 if you were going downhill with the wind behind them. But if they did, their fillings would rattle out.
The Stryker is bigger and has a higher profile and better armor than the M-113. The tracked M113 has, as it happens, 28% less volume under armor than the Stryker so one might reasonably expect Stryker to be bigger externally. However, the wheeled Stryker is, in fact, over 63% bigger in exterior volume. Note. The M113-Stryker ratios are 257 versus 330 cubic feet internally, and 870 cubic feet versus 1,420 cubic feet externally.
The Stryker can't go as many places as a fully tracked vehicle like the M-113. But those who have driven both say they can go through pretty much the same terrain. Plus the Stryker can run with four tires shot out. Try to keep moving if the track comes off on an M-113. Maintenance is easier on the Stryker, but there was initially a shortage of parts in the system because the vehicle is so new.
It has crew of 3 and carries 7 passengers. This is part of an effort to modernize all infantry divisions and make them mechanized infantry. The mechanized infantry squad has to be smaller because you can't get 12 troops into the vehicles available to the mech infantry. The new IFVs can carry only 7 passengers, so the infantry squads are split up when travelling in the new IFVs. Non-mechanized (they move by truck) infantry uses a 12 man squad organization, with an extra RPG and light machine-gun.
Until recently, most of China's APC designs were all based on Russian designs. Using technology and weapons obtained from Ukraine, the new vehicle has a 30mm autocannon, instead of 25mm. ZBD/ZBL-09, however, borrows more from the West. The Chinese have been following U.S success in Iraq with the Stryker and LAV wheeled combat vehicles. Chinese designers eventually concluded that the roomier internal layout of Western vehicles did serve a useful purpose and the ZBL 09, and all the electronics installed in it, are an example of what the Chinese learned. The infantry carrier version has a turret with a 30mm autocannon. There are also artillery versions carrying 105mm gun.
Eitan will have a remotely (from inside the vehicle) controlled 30mm or 40mm autocannon and carry a crew of two and twelve passengers. It will be equipped with Trophy APS (Active Protection System). APS consists of a radar to detect incoming missiles and small rockets to rush out and deal with the incoming threat. A complete system weighs about a ton.
Both vehicles are armed with a 30mm autocannon in a turret. This weapon is stabilized, enabling it to fire accurately while the vehicle is moving. The vehicle also mounts a 7.62mm machine-gun. The BTR-82A also has a fire suppression system and a floor built to better protect the three crew and seven passengers from mines and roadside bombs. The hull incorporates a Kevlar layer to provide better protection against shell and bomb fragments.
BMP-3 has a history of poor performance while the BTR-80 does not.
About 2,600 FICVs will be needed to replace the Indian army’s old Russian-origin BMP-2 infantry combat vehicles. The ministry of defence (MoD) is planning to cancel and reissue an expression of interest (EoI) for the army’s $7.5-billion futuristic infantry combat vehicle (FICV) programme.
A minimum 30% indigenous content on cost basis (excluding taxes, duties and other statutory obligations) is mandatory for the developed prototype of FICV. The Govt. would reimburse 80% of their expenses of 2 chosen development agencies but the ownership of any intellectual property generated from any joint development may be transferable to the MoD, if required.
DRDO, being a technical evaluation agency, will not be competing/participating as a potential partner. The Indian companies have been encouraged to form consortium (maximum five) and also tie up with as many foreign companies. The 9 private companies in the race are — Larsen & Toubro; Tata Power (strategic engineering division); Tata Motors; Mahindra & Mahindra; Bharat Forge; Pipavav Defence; Rolta India; Punj Lloyd; and Titagarh Wagons. Ordnance Factory Board is a government owned Indian defence production company, is also in the race.
The resemblance with the OT-64 Skot (jointly developed by Czechoslovakia and Poland) are the arrangement of its road wheels, the layout of its hatches, twin amphibious propellers, and the hull shape. Like the OT-64, two crew members are needed at the front of the vehicle.
The Kestrel is offered in NATO STANAG 4569 Level 1 protection but can be increased to Level 4. The vehicle has an integrated blast and ballistic protection including blast-deflecting, all-welded V-hull and an armor protected, detachable capsule for the protection of the crew. The protective moulded bodies are being made by a sister company Tata Advanced Materials Ltd.
It is a light, modular, recon scout vehicle with an independent suspension. It is propelled by a rear-mounted water jet and need no preparation before entering the water. Designed to carry 12 soldiers (including a crew of 2) and mobility through independent wheel drive (100 km / h; the Kestrel offers situational awareness to the driver via three periscopes and front and rear-view infrared cameras. Radio communication systems for the Kestrel are provided by Thales. As an IFV, the Kestrel supports a 30mm turret and as many as two anti-tank missiles plus different mounts for machine guns.
The core technology in almost everything in defence today sits outside India. We have to get it either through FDI or other means. There is no way to develop it. Local defence industry is also spread too thin. Tier I technology will still not come but maybe. Indian industry can still work wonders with tier II technology. It can cater to the African market who cannot afford anything else. Tata Motors have bagged an order for some 500 military vehicles to the UN-sponsored US army presence in Mali under a US State Department order.
Experience from the Middle East conflicts in the 1980s and the 1991 Gulf War has showed that the BMP-1, a 1960s-era Soviet Union design originally to be used in the nuclear war, is not suitable for modern land warfare.
Thanks to modular design it will be available in five main variants: typical troop transport (1022 vehicles), command-and-control variant (333), engineer and recovery (54), artillery observation vehicles (117) and ambulance (196). Furthermore there will be also sub-variants of mentioned above such as four variants of troop carrier like mortar team carrier or anti-tank team carrier) and three derives from engineer variant such as response team carrier or refueling unit). In total there still be 11 variants of Griffon but compared to currently used 30 variants of VAB this is a big step forward.
Belgium has ordered 60 Jaguar EBRC and 417 Griffon VBMR for $1.2 billion, making it one of the biggest single investments. The new vehicles are scheduled to enter service with Belgian troops between 2025 and 2030; and will replace aging Piranha III 6x6 armored vehicles and Dingo II 4x4 armored vehicles used by Medium Brigade.
Armoured Infantry fighting vehicle (IFV)
Tracked or Mechanized Force (best but short service life)
which are costly and needs to be replaced every 6,000 km or less
Engine's Horse-Power loses as much as 25% power due to lighter atmosphere in high-altitude.
Enter and exit via top hatches is not a good idea in combat.
WPB Anders multi-role tracked IFV prototype or technology demonstrator was developed by the Bumar group of Poland and is based on the Swedish CV90-120-T light tank. The vehicle has a three-strong crew and accommodates seven dismounts.
The Anders is powered by a German MTU turbocharged diesel engine, developing 720 hp. The same engine is used on the Austrian Ulan IFV. The unmanned turret is used on the Polish Kołowy Transporter Opancerzony Rosomak aka the Wolverine, which is the licence built 8×8 wheeled Finnish Patria AMV. It replaces the ageing BMP-1 family with the addition of heavy fire support. Indian Army expressed interest in obtaining these new Polish light tanks.
The project has been replaced with the Polish-British project of PL-01 IFV whose chassis is based on that of the Swedish "Stridsfordon 90 or Combat Vehicle 90" IFV. The PL-01 can be seen as uparmored version of the Anders.
The turret features the ATK Bushmaster III 35mm cannon and a 7.62mm co-axial machine gun, a Rheinmetall muzzle programmer for airburst munitions, a Saab Universal Tank and Anti-Aircraft Sight (UTAAS) and fire control system, an independent sight system for the commander enabling him to search, engage or hand over targets to the gunner, and a Saab soft-kill active defence system. This integrates laser warning receivers with 76mm multi-spectral smoke grenades.
The new models have active suspensions. Passive suspensions that simply absorb the shock of a bump or divot in the road as it occurs, active suspensions calculate vehicle speed against upcoming terrain to selectively tighten the suspension and keep the vehicle level. This eliminates both body roll and pitch acceleration as well as translates into a higher top speed since all four wheels (or in this case, both tracks) stay in firm contact with the ground.
It is now also in service in a number of variants with Norway, Finland, Switzerland, the Netherlands and Denmark, and was deployed to Afghanistan with the Swedish, Norwegian and Danish armies.
The design of the CV90 can be traced back to 1973 and the UDES developmental projects. It entered service with Sweden in 1993. The CV90 IFV was developed since the mid 1980s. This a 23 ton tracked vehicle needs a crew of 3 and has room for 8 passengers (usually infantrymen). The vehicle turret carries a 40mm autocannon and a coaxial 7.62mm machine-gun as well as a thermal imager for night operations. It was also exported to Denmark, Finland, Netherlands, Norway and Switzerland. Across most of its platforms, the chassis and profile remain unchanged with few exceptions, making it easily recognizable.
The CV90 has garnered an excellent combat record in the Middle East, surviving many encounters with IEDs without casualties. The Scandinavian terrain, extremely varying in fjords, mountains and hills, made the CV90 stand out, as it was designed to operate in that difficult environment. The Bradley faced severe mobility issues when traversing thick snow of up to 50cm in height, which would be crippling for the military of a Nordic nation.
Practically speaking, an all-new “clean-sheet design” vehicle — is something the U.S. Army can’t currently afford. Having canceled 2 previous attempts to replace the Bradley, the Future Combat Systems and the Ground Combat Vehicle, the Pentagon has pushed what’s now called the Future Fighting Vehicle out past 2030.
The U.S. Army is ploughing ahead with plans (Engineering Change Proposal 1 & 2) to equip 2,500 older Bradley with IED survivability, upgraded suspensions and tracks, fresh transmissions and electronics, including new sensors (3rd gen FLIR). FLIR technology detects heat and creates images from it, allowing operators to see through darkness, smoke, rain, snow and fog. The work will be done in stages.
The enhancements will include the Engineering Change Proposal modernization efforts, such as suspension improvements, targeting sensors, and network connectivity. The Bradley’s already being upgraded with a higher suspension, which both improves off-road mobility and gives more distance from a mine or roadside bomb. That troop-compartment floor is attached only at the sides instead of resting on the hull below it, so the bone-shattering shockwave travels up the walls instead of through the floor and into soldiers’ legs. The torsion-bar suspension has been redesigned so the bars don’t come loose in an explosion and rip upward through the floor of the troop compartment like oversized shrapnel. The redesign also relocates the fuel tanks.
The 50-ton Next-Generation Bradley will have integrated the M109A7 howitzer. The commonality of parts among the vehicles also provides significant cost savings opportunities over the life cycle of the vehicle and reduces the complex logistics trail. That said, most currently Bradleys aren’t fully upgraded to the A4 standard.
It uses the latest-model A4 Bradley turret, complete with its expensive electronics, 25 mm cannon, and TOW anti-tank missiles. The new hull is one piece of a ground-up redesign for survivability. The vehicle will have an upgraded chassis that allows for significantly increased underbelly protection, improved force protection for mounted troops, compartmentation of fuel and ordnance, and more space and electrical power for future technology growth. The extra electrical power is particularly important. Modern sensors, targeting systems and communications take a lot of power. Radio jammers to prevent roadside bombs from detonating take even more. Active Protection Systems (APS) adds a lot of protection, but it draws a lot of power.
| || |
Its designed replaces the current Marder IFV of the German Army. The vehicles are built with an option for three levels of protection to suit operational requirements. These versions weigh 29.4t, 31.45t and 43t. The Puma IFV with maximum level of protection is even heavier than the T-72 main battle tank. The modular construction of these vehicles will allow them to be transported on the A400M aircraft.
It is one of the best-protected IFVs, while still having a high power-to-weight ratio. Vehicle is powered by diesel engine, developing a whooping 1 073 horsepower. It is worth mentioning that some of the latest main battle tanks haven't got that much power. The vehicle is operated by a crew of three (commander, gunner and driver) and can carry up to eight equipped troops.
This IFV is armed with a remote-controlled weapon station with a turret-mounted, dual-feed Mauser 30mm mk30-2 cannon and a coaxial 5.56-mm MG 4 light machine gun. A Spike-LR fire-and-forget anti-tank missile system will also be integrated into the vehicles.
The cabin is air conditioned, NBC-proof with internal nuclear and chemical sensors and has a fire suppressing system using non-toxic agents. The engine compartment has its own fire extinguishing system.
The vehicle on show is 32t and measures 7.23m long and 3.45m wide. It also has a new MTU 8V199 turbo-charged diesel engine, producing 720hp, and Renk HSWL 106 hydromechanical transmission, which replaces the earlier Scania engine and Sapa mechanical transmission.
Its developed by Alvis Vickers (now BAE Systems Land Systems), has been combat-proved in action with the British Army in operations in the Middle East during Desert Storm and Operation Iraqi Freedom and on United Nations duties in Bosnia. Warrior vehicles were also deployed to Afghanistan. There are seven Warrior variants. The Warrior adapts to a range of roles with weapon fits ranging from machine pistols to 90mm guns, mortars and missile systems.
The upgrade included the General Dynamics UK Bowman tactical communications system and the addition of a night fighting capability in the form of the Thales Optronics battle group thermal imaging (BGTI) programme. BGTI includes a new STAG (surveillance, targeting, acquisition and gunnery) gunner's sight for the MTIP which is stabilised in two axes and includes a second generation thermal imager and eyesafe laser rangefinder, GPS / inertial navigation system and fire control system.
Under the British Army's manned turret integration programme (MTIP), a new two-person GKN Sankey turret with a 40mm stabilised case telescoped weapon system (CTWS) cannon, to allow firing on the move is being trialled. GKN Sankey's turret is equipped with L21A1 30mm Rarden cannon that can destroy the most advanced APCs from a maximum range of 1,500m. The turret was developed by CTA International, a joint venture formed by BAE Systems and Nexter Systems (formerly Giat).
From late 2007, Warrior vehicles operating in Iraq are being fitted with 'wrap two' armour, with increased effectiveness against improvised explosive devices (IEDs). The old bar or slat armour was removed.
China's 780HP water-cooled diesel engines Xinqingtan ZTQ-105 (literally “New Light Tank”) was designed using western tech for rough, mountainous terrain in Tibet and the mountainous jungles of Vietnamese border. When upgraded with 1,000 horsepower turbocharged diesel engine, it will give it an excellent power-to-weight ratio. This will enable it to climb on steep inclines and operate at higher altitudes, where the thinner air simply starves out the engines of heavier vehicles. Furthermore, the new light tank uses expensive hydropneumatics suspension which affords a smoother ride and can adjust the ground clearance of the vehicle as necessary, an ideal feature for overcoming craggy or boggy terrain.
It carries a full-stabilized 105 mm cannon rifled gun with thirty-eight rounds of ammunitions. This turret detail revealed the Xinqingtan was using a smaller version of the modern turret used in China’s most modern tank, the Type 99A2. Its been mass produced and been showing up since 2011. It can fire tungsten sabot rounds capable of penetrating an equivalent of 500 millimeter of rolled hardened steel. This is far from adequate for penetrating the frontal armor of contemporary main battle tanks, but possibly enough to defeat older T-72 models. Effective range is only listed as 3 kms, though the gun can also fire anti-tank and helicopter missiles with tandem-charge warheads at targets up to 5 kms away.
The gun barrel reportedly can elevate to very high angles. This could prove useful, as historically, limited gun elevation has often bedeviled tankers in mountainous regions, who have even resorted to improvised ramps to shoot at higher angles. Thanks to an autoloader which ejects spent shells out the rear, the Xinqingtan requires only a crew of 3: a gunner, driver and commander. In terms of secondary weapons, there is also a remotely controlled 12.7 millimeter machine and a 35mm automatic grenade launcher on top of the turret, plus a co-axial 7.62mm gun inside the turret. This adds up to quite a bit of anti-personnel firepower.
There appears to be modular armor (reactive or other lightweight types) for parts of the vehicle. The new design’s hull is made of welded steel—nothing special, however better than the flammable lightweight aluminum—and it can fit modular add-on armor, including composite or Explosive Reactive Armor types, either of which might improve survivability versus missiles or rocket propelled grenades. However, at this weight class the Xinqingtan is unlikely to withstand a hit from a modern tank main gun, though it could prove resistant to the automatic cannons widely employed on infantry fighting vehicles.
The vehicle boasts a purportedly sophisticated sensors and fire control system, including thermal sights for both the commander and gunner, a targeting computer linked to a wind sensor and “hunter killer” engagement mode that automatically adjusts the aim to paint enemy vehicles. Other gear includes a laser rangefinder, a GPS navigation system and battle management software allowing to network effectively with friendly vehicles. These are typical design features in modern tanks, but not cheap to include on a disposable vehicle.
The vehicle is known because cell phone photos have been taken more of them were transported to distant places (like Tibet) on railroad flat cars or moved around on tank transporters for tests in different parts of the country. The lighter vehicle can be air dropped by parachute, though it is not amphibious.
China's Type 62 was a smaller version of the Type 59 (Russian T-55) with much thinner armor (35 mm / 1.4 inches in the front). Over 1,500 were built before production ceased in 1989. Xinqingtan ZTQ light tank is said to be a modernised and improved Type-59-II.
China bought the technology of the unusually heavy armament-ed Russia's BMD-3 (lessons from Afghanistan in terms of crew protection and comfort) was used to design and produced the new Chinese infantry armoured fighting vehicle, the ZBD 97 or Type 97. The price for an individual BMP-3 is stated to be $800,000 to $950,000 during the late 90's. All Russian IFV are fully amphibious as per their doctrine.
These vehicles can carry seven to eight soldiers and are manufactured by the the ordnance factory in Medak. The mechanised infantry battalions is an integral part of the armoured brigades and are expected to be play a crucial role in any strike formation of the Army, which has to carry the battle into enemy territory. The latest CAG report suggests that only 53% of the sanctioned vehicles were available with the Army.
The upgraded systems will feature a solid-state radar and computers, electro-optical fire control systems, a new Caterpillar 359 BHP diesel engine and a new APU. The upgraded systems must be able to operate despite enemy jamming, must be able to pick up targets more than 15 km away, and must function in temperatures between 55º Celsius and minus 40º Celsius. Ammunition for 23 mm autocannons increased two times. The gun must be able to shoot down targets flying up to 450 miles per hour up to 1,500 meters and out to 2,500 meters.
BEL is not just replacing the existing systems (radar, analog computer, engine, GTE) with more modern one, but adding new features to increase crew comfort and safety. This upgraded system has dramatically improved operational performance and accuracy and MTBF with much lower power consumption. An electro-optical system has been added, which operates in parallel with the radar enabling accurate identification, acquisition and tracking of targets while operating in an ECM environment.
The upgraded Schilkas feature:
- 3D Active Phased Array Radar
- Single Target Tracking
- Multiple Target Tracking due to Electronic Steering in Elevation
- ECCM Features
- Low Output Power
- Optronic System (CCD / TI / LRF)
- Operator Comfort with Air Conditioner
- User Friendly Operator Displays
- New Engine with drastic reduction in fuel consumption
- Nuclear, Biological, Chemical (NBC) protection system
They have the ability to engage aerial targets while on the move during day or night and in all weather conditions. They can be cued using an external Surveillance Radar.
The UK's Ministry of Defense (MoD) selected the ASCOD platform for its FRES Scout requirement under the AJAX family (previously Scout SV) designation. ASCOD 2 Scout SV under the Future Rapid Effect System (FRES) will replace theFV107 Scimitar (armoured reconnaissance), FV103 Spartan (specialist personnel carrier) and FV106 Samson (recovery vehicle)
The MTU 8V 199T21 engine provides an output of 800 hp, giving the ASCOD 2 a top speed of about 70 kph forwards and 35 kph in reverse.
The ASCOD 2 in the IFV configuration follows a conventional layout with driver on the front left and the power pack to the front right, a fully traversable electro-mechanical two-man turret mounting a 30 mm Mauser MK-30/2 autocannon and coaxial 7.62 machine gun.
The standard all-welded rolled steel armour provides protection against 14.4 mm armour-piercing ammunition across its frontal arc and all-round protection against 7.62mm ammunition, although both the Spanish and Austrians have upgraded the protection levels of their vehicles. The level of anti-mine protection is not known.
The AJAX programme includes six variants: AJAX, ARES, APOLLO, ATHENA, ATLAS and ARGUS.
South Korea's K200 (A3) K-IFV is based on the chassis of U.S. M113. K200 (A1) has been exported to Malaysia.
Later improvements include the addition of a laser rangefinder over the main gun and the addition of side skirts. The gun has a bore evacuator located farther back on the tube than the usual 100-mm rifled gun and a segmented thermal sleeve. At a range of 1000m, its AT rounds can penetrate approximately 300 mm of RHA, provided that they did not miss.
It also incorporates the TSFC 2-axis gun stabilization, a new Type 70 gunner's sight, full active infrared night fighting equipment, and engine smoke discharger, an NBC protective system and a new suspension. ERAs are installed on both front and back.
It was supplied to or produced by Warsaw pact countries, forming the bulk of their forces during the 1960s-70s. Then it served with the allies in the Middle East (Egypt, Syria, Jordan) and numerous nations among the non-aligned and third world countries. A staggering 83,500 were produced, alongside the Polish and Czech versions (21,000 more). China copied the T-54 under the Type 59 designation and it was also largely distributed among Asiatic nations, notably North Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, North Korea and Indonesia.
In the early 1960s, American engineers installed a 105mm main gun on their newly-developed M60 MBT. As a response, the Soviets developed a 115mm gun, and placed it on an improved version of T-55, the T-62.
The Indian Army has used T-55 extensively in its conflicts with Pakistan.
Wheeled or Motorized Force (longer service life)
The Mk.2 is much heavier than its predecessor. It weights 32,000 kg opposed to 25,600 kg. Vehicle is powered by a new engine. It withstands mine blasts equivalent to 10 kg of TNT. Interior is fitted with new blast resistant seats. Vehicle can keep on moving if a wheel is lost by mine explosion.
It has a welded aluminum hull can be protected up to STANAG V which carries add-on modular THD steel and titanium armour and it can be replaced in the field. A licensed copy was supposed to be manufactured by Russia’s Uralvagonzavod as the Atom.
It originally started as a joint venture between Germany, Britain and France, but France left the programme in 1999 to develop the less costly 8x8 VBCI multi-mission IFV. Boxer has a chassis attached to a welded steel hull with a detachable rear module i.e. MOTS. This allows rapid configurations into one of its nine variants.
ARmoured TEChnology (Krauss-Maffei Wegmann GmbH & Co. KG, Rheinmetall Radfahrzeuge GmbH and Rheinmetall Nederland B.V.) is responsible for the Boxer development programme for the German and Dutch armies, acting as the prime contractor. A total of 500 Boxer’s are currently in service today. Some 38 German Army Boxers, primarily APCs, were deployed in Afghanistan from 2011 to 2014.
The 720 hp MTU diesel engine produces a top speed of 103 km/h and a range of 1,050 km, although over what mix of terrain is not detailed.
Offered with either a manned or unmanned Lance 30 turret, the platform’s flexibility was underlined by the Lithuanians’ decision to use the UT 30 Mk 2 turret offered separately by Elbit Systems. This will be armed with a 30 mm cannon and Spike anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) launchers. When fitted with the Lance turret, under the current IFV configuration the number of dismounts is limited to six.
When the high numbers of TPz (Transportpanzer) Fuchs ("Fox") become obsolete by 2020, more Boxers are likely to follow.
In the military context, MOTS refers to a modified or modifiable off-the-shelf product that is developed or customized by a commercial vendor to respond to specific military requirements. Because a MOTS product is adapted for a specific purpose, it can be purchased and used immediately.
Marine's Expeditionary Fighting amphibious assault Vehicle (EFV)
Counter-attack tactic: (Grab them by the belt buckle) We show very high determination. The closer we hug the enemy forces, the less effective the enemy artillery firepower becomes and make air support impracticable. We destroy combat strength and force them to withdraw.
Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) replaces the failed Expeditionary Fighting amphibious assault Vehicle (EFV)
A fifth candidate was not ready for the Modern Day Marine event where proposed new equipment for marines is presented. By the end of the year two finalists will be chosen from those five and enough cash will be provided to build and deliver 16 prototypes by the end of 2016. By 2018 a winner will be selected and production will begin with marines receiving the first ACV 1.1s by 2020.
This is not how it was supposed to be. In 2014 the marines revised its view of the future. Gone are the prospects of large (with hundreds or thousands of landing craft) amphibious operations that occurred in great numbers during World War II. The last operation of this type (Inchon, Korea) occurred in 1950, over 60 years ago. Now the marines expect to conduct raids, from ships up to 200 kilometers off shore. No amphibious armored vehicles could handle that, so landing tactics have to be changed. This resulted in major revisions to the specs for the new marine ACV amphibious armored vehicle. The first ACVs (ACV 1.1) were to be 20-25 ton 8x8 wheeled armored vehicles that are not amphibious but would be moved to the beach by high speed landing craft like the LCAC (Landing Craft Air Cushion). This ACV would carry 13 marines, three of them the vehicle crew. These will cost about $4-$8 million each. After that would come the amphibious version (ACV 1.2) that would cost about $12 million each and only be able to travel about 20 kilometers from ship to shore. This version was also meant (if possible) to carry more troops (up to twenty). The marines also wanted ACV 1.1 designed so that it could be upgraded to most of the 1.2 standard. All this was expected to take at least a decade and many of the elderly AAV7s will have to stay in service until then. That will be made possible by some upgrades.
The 2015 reality turned out to be different, and better. Given the prototypes recently displayed and growing budget reductions it looks like the ACV 1.1 finalist will have the capability of moving from 20 kilometers off shore under its own power. To accomplish this the marines will have to accept a vehicle that can carry only 13 marines.
AAV SU (Survivability Upgrade): The AAV SU is upgraded version of the existing, 1970s era AAV7 amphibious armored vehicles will prolong service life until ACV can replace them. In addition to better protection the elderly AAV7s will be refurbished so they can remain in use until the mid-2020s. A total of 10 AAV SUs will be tested before the Marine Corps commits to upgrading its entire fleet of 392 AAVs. However, the AAV7A2 added weight has a reduced capacity on soft soil and can carry one less dismount compared with the original AAV7.
The marines never expected the AAV7s to last this long but several attempts to develop a replacement came up short. Thus the need to extend the life of their thousand AAV7 amphibious armored vehicles. These entered service in the 1970s and are falling apart. Moreover, some two thirds of the AAV7s saw service in Iraq, where they got as much use in two months as they normally did in two years of peacetime operations. Some 400 AAV7s are already scheduled for refurbishing, which will begin in 2018 and finish in the early 2020s. Thus the AAV7s can still be used into the 2030s, or whenever a permanent replacement can be found.
The 29 ton AAV7s has a crew of four (driver, commander, gunner and rear crewman) and carries 25 combat ready marines as passengers. The vehicle is armed with a 40mm automatic grenade launcher and a 12.7mm machine-gun. Top land speed is 72 kilometers an hour on roads, 32 off road and 13 in water. In addition to the survivability upgrade, a new engine has been added that is 28 percent more powerful as well as MRAP type protection on the floor of the vehicle to minimize the impact of mines or bombs on passengers and crew.
Back in 2011 the marines gave up on high-speed (sea skimming) amphibious assault vehicles. It then turned to a new ACV design to replace the AAV7s. DARPA was called in to help design the new vehicle. This may sound either very innovative or very desperate, and in reality it was both. In part because the marines had spent three billion dollars in an unsuccessful attempt (the EFV or Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle) to design and develop a high-speed amphibious vehicle and partly because that failure made it clear that some original thinking was required. In the end the $12 million ACV was the EFV without most of the expensive stuff that didn't work. In effect, the ACV was be a 21st century version of the AAV7, optimized to pass all its development tests and get into service as quickly as possible. DARPA quickly did its job but the resulting ACV was still more expensive ($12 million) than the shrinking marine budget could handle.
In retrospect, the marines could have just built the EFV without the high-speed capability but that was eventually considered technically and politically impractical. The problem remains that the technology simply does not yet exist yet to make the high-speed capability workable. The budget situation is grim, leaving the usually unstoppable Marine Corps running into an immovable object and improvising as best they can. The marines have asked the navy to develop a high speed amphibious craft (or “connector”) to get ACVs to shore quickly but the navy budget is also shrinking and probably unable to handle the cost of developing and building the connector. Some marine analysts point out that the need for moving amphibious vehicles 200 kms from ship to shore is probably unrealistic for any likely future marine operations.
The ACV has eight wheels, a six-cylinder turbodiesel engine, and weighs about 20 tons. It can carry up to 13-15 marines over land or water with at a maximum speed of 60 mph and incorporates intuitive automatic systems into the design.
The earlier stages of the ACV 1.1 production effort were stalled by a contract protest by General Dynamics after the company was defeated in the Marine Corps' bidding process.
The BAE version of this diesel-powered 33-ton Super AV vehicle has a top speed of 105 kph on paved roads and 6.9 mph, 11 kph in the water, with the capability to carry a crew of three and embarked two more for a total of 13 Marines (i.e., a full squad). Its range is 19 km at sea followed by 320 km on land. Two small shrouded propellers provide propulsion at sea. On land, the “H-drive” system provides power to individual wheels, so the vehicle can continue operating if an individual wheel is damaged or destroyed. The armored passenger and crew compartments are protected by a V-shaped hull. Individuals are further protected from blast effects by shock-mounted seats.
NORINCO has confirmed that the VN18 is fitted with a two-person turret armed with a stabilised 30mm cannon and a 7.62mm coaxial machine gun (MG), with a Red Arrow 73 series anti-tank guided weapon (ATGW) mounted either side of the turret.
It has a maximum water speed of 25km/h, which is a considerable improvement over that of the US Marine Corps AAV7A1 amphibious assault vehicle (AAV) that is rapidly becoming obsolete.
The VN18 is powered by a diesel engine that develops 1,176kW for amphibious operations and 440kW for land operations, giving a maximum road speed of 65km/h.
The PLA has also fielded a 105mm direct fire version called the ZTL-05; the export version is called the VN16. There are also command and control and combat engineer versions.
The Chinese company is also marketing its latest VP10 armoured personnel carrier (APC) and VN12 tracked IFV.
8x8 ZTL-11 is derived from the ZBL-08 (often referred to as the ZBD-09) family amphibious assault vehicle is the Marine corps.
The BT-3F replaced the turret of the BMP-3 with a RWS (Remote Weapons Station) using a 7.62mm machine-gun. In water the BT-3F moves as 10 kilometers an hour.
It incorporates lessons learned during the 1973 Yom Kippur War. During that conflict, Egyptian and Syrian BMP-1s proved highly vulnerable to attacks on the sides and rear (where fuel tanks were located), and visibility was compromised by the fact that the commander was seated behind the driver. The BMP-1’s 73-mm gun was also shown to be inadequate and the AT-3 missiles inaccurate.
As a result, the BMP-2 emerged with a revised crew layout which came at the cost of one less trooper while the larger turret (which now houses both commander and gunner) also incorporated a 30-mm cannon plus the ability to fire the more advanced AT-4 or AT-5 anti-tank missiles. Improved armor was also provided, although in practice, it retains many of the same vulnerabilities of its predecessor.
Indian government has authorised Ordnance Factory to supply 2,827 (2521 delivered) BMP-2s vehicles for Mechanised Infantry; and 323 (170 delivered) BMPS vehicles for Corps of Engineers. Out of which, 1,025 vehicles are due for overhaul. However, During the last 6 years Ordnance Factory production capacity has been 55% (Instead of 600 vehicles, only 265 have been delivered in 6 years). The Indian Army has effectively 53% vehicles currently operational in various roles (1500 BMP-2K + 166 BMP) , such as armored ambulance, armored vehicle tracked light repair, armored amphibious dozer (AAD), armoured engineer reconnaissance vehicle (AERV), NBC reconnaissance vehicle (NBCRV), carrier mortar tracked, and unmanned reconnaissance vehicle. Muntra-S and Muntra-M are the recon variant and the mine-detector variant, respectively. 389 more vehicles have been ordered.
Each 30mm ammunition cost Rs 15,000 per round.
All-terrain vehicle (ATV)
Light Tactical Vehicle
(light-weight, quick-mobility, multi-purpose/mission, air-transportable)
Protected Tactical Vehicle to replace the multi-purpose high-mobility vehicle (HMMWV)
- Light-armoured vehicle (LAV) for armoured Patrol (mine-resistant, wheeled, off-road, amphibious chassis), &
- Joint "Light Tactical" Vehicle (JLTV) are mine-resistant but lighter than M-RAPs
- Heavy M-RAP that are more similar to typical Trucks rather than APCs.
The HMMWV was expected to last for three decades or more. But that plan changed once Iraq was invaded. This began in Iraq, where it was demonstrated that you can fight your way through a hostile population on a regular basis and defeat a guerrilla force constantly attacking your tactical and logistical vehicles. This has never worked before but it worked this time, in part because U.S. troops promptly armored their hummers and trucks and quickly developed "road warrior" tactics that defeated roadside and suicide bombs. Even though these bombs created a lot of American casualties, the U.S. casualty rate in Iraq and Afghanistan was a third of what it was in Vietnam and World War II. This was in large part because of the armored hummers and trucks. Few people outside the military noted this event, a watershed moment in military history. But it was recognized within the military and produced this sharp shift in design philosophy for tactical trucks, and the result is the Joint "Light Tactical" Vehicle (JLTV). The 6.4 ton JLTV that replaces the 4 ton armored HMMWV (2.4 tons unarmored) is heavier because of the JLTV being more robust and better protected.
The JLTV marks a notable design direction for tactical vehicles. The JLTV is designed to absorb combat damage and be quickly equipped with two different armor kits. The first low-rate production orders came months after the Oshkosh L-ATV was selected as the winner of the design competition. Thousands of American soldiers and marines already have experience with JLTV because low-rate production began in 2015 with orders for 657 vehicles and that has since been increased so that the American military (mainly the army) can get their personnel used to the new vehicle. These users also provided a lot of feedback, which is understandable because the initial design of the JLTV was based on a lot of troop feedback and online discussions (especially on message boards only accessible to the troops) about what worked and what didn’t in combat, especially with regard to armored hummers and MRAPS. The M-RAP offered high-protection but is not all-terrain, is too heavy and hard to transport.
- Tata Motors,
- Ashok Leyland-Paramount Group and
- Mahindra-BAE System
Yuktirath (Werewolf) III MPV: Aditya MPV-I (based on South Africa's Casspir MPVs) developed by DRDO, are supplied by the Medak Ordnance Factory, and also manufactured at Jabalpur Vehicle Factory. The body is made out of thick steel and has been raised high above the ground. Aditya MPV was later upgraded to weather blasts of higher intensity (35-42 kg of TNT), and renamed Yuktirath (Werewolf) III MPV. It was developed to replace BEML MPVs. Although their total requirement has been estimated to be 1,500, more than 300 MPVs had already been supplied to the paramilitary and police for use in the anti-Maoist operations across the country.
Although 668 of MPVs has been sanctioned for Paramilitary Forces; 224 to Border Security, 92 to Assam Rifles and 40 to Indo-Tibetan Border Police but in reality only 126 MPVs in total has been provided to the Paramilitary Forces, 24 to Border Security, 28 to Assam Rifles and 20 to Indo-Tibetan Border Police have been provided.
In the Maoist heartland of Chhattisgarh, original Aditya MPV-Is disappointed. In early 2005, there was euphoria after all 17 policemen travelling in an MPV survived a Naxal IED attack in Narayanpur, Bastar. It was short-lived, as the Naxals modified their tactics. In their next attack, in Bijapur district in September 2005, they replaced the 10-kilo Narayanpur IED with a massive 40-kg IED. After that, the security forces in Chhattisgarh shrank from travelling in MPVs, except on blacktopped highways where no IEDs can be buried. More than 200 troopers are estimated to have lot their lives while using the MPV in the three years 2009-2012.
These original Aditya MPVs are designed to withstand blasts of up to 14 kg of RDX, as used in conventional military landmines. But the insurgents don't use military landmines or RDX-based IEDs. They use fertilisers, gelatins, emulsions and slurries in their IEDs, which have a heaving effect and not a shattering one which RDX produces. Because Aditya MPV was developed from the South African design, it can't withstand a heaving explosion which topples the MPV over, trapping the passengers inside.
OFB (Ordnance Factory Board) has developed Jabalpur MRAP: 6-cylinder in-line engine, class 10 tons, speed: 85 km / h, monocoque "V" against mines.
For both models top speed is 105 km per hour on roads and there is on board fuel to take it at least 700 km on roads. There is a turret that can be armed with a manned heavy machine-gun or a RWS (Remote Weapons Station).
The 18 ton vehicle, 4x4 model, can carry a payload of 4 tons and is normally configured to carry of 2 crew + 7 passengers. The 24 tons vehicle, 6x6 model,0 can carry a payload of 7 tons and is normally configured to carry of 2 crew + 10 passengers.
The N35 is smaller, less heavily armed, cheaper version which is more suited to peacekeeping or police work.
VP-11 version is VIP (Very Important Person) transport and WJ-03B version is an anti-riot police armoured version of the ZSL-92 family and is the most modern wheeled IFV in service since 1997.
The vehicle uses a German-designed BF8L413F 4-stroke, 8-cylinder, turbocharged, air-cooled diesel engine, which generates 320hp. This gives a top road speed of 85km/h and an operational range of somewhere between 600 to 800km.
Different versions have been exported to Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Venezuela and Kenya.
Top road speed is 112 kilometers an hour and it has a hatch in the top that allows for installation of a manned machine-gun or a RWS (remote weapons station). Range on internal fuel is 480 kilometers and it has an improved suspension for a smoother ride off-road. The diesel engine can also generate 70 kw of electrical power.
The M-RAP offered high protection but is not all-terrain, is too heavy and hard to transport. The 2500 kg (un-armored) Humvee is actually a support/mobility vehicle which was turned into combat vehicle. These upgrade kits also caused a lot of problems and compromises. It made it very heavy and less fast while they did not offer enough protection. Hence the need for a lighter (6500 Kg) true combat GMV + MATV designed from the bottom up for high-mobility, all-terrain and mine protection.
The key to the Taurus mobility is the 30cm (12 inch) wide 64cm (25 inch) diameter low pressure (down to 3 PSI) tires. The two speed gearbox only allows for a top speed of 35 kilometers an hour but when dealing with the worst types of muddy or marshy terrain, that’s several times faster than you can manage on foot. There are racks over the each wheel for over 80 kg of gear.