Electronic countermeasures and counter-countermeasures maintain their quick evolution, as electronic warfare, optical warfare, and cyber warfare blend into a new discipline called spectrum warfare. Since the introduction of stealth during the Gulf war, new counter stealth technologies have been designed involving multiple radars and very long over the horizon (OTH) radar antennas working in different wavelength, and combining active and passive detection systems, creating a sensor fusion of multiple data (different sensors detect and track the same target, the track and identification data are merged automatically) which targets stealth platforms. So instead of one target, the radar operator sees three, five or 10 and he does not know where to fire. New processing technologies include “multiple hypothesis” tracking in which weak returns are analyzed over time and either declared as tracks or discarded based on their behavior.
You can take the signal and return it, and then you send another ping which imitates the same signal. So instead of one target, the radar operator sees three, five or 10 and he does not know where to fire. New digital adaptive cognitive electronic warfare (EW) system technologies use machine-learning algorithms to protect aircrafts against communications jammers, by measuring a variety of data — the power level, frequency and bandwidth of radio signals; and adopt different never-before-seen frequencies, signal characteristics and waveform to avoid being jammed. Essentially, the military’s approach has been to study enemy systems for vulnerabilities, figure out ways of disrupting them and then building a “playbook” filled with different EW tactics.
NATO intelligence specialists discovered that the Russian warplanes were using stealth technique they had used before. This involved having warplanes with their transponders turned off fly close to a larger transport that kept its transponder on. By flying close to the transport the usual air traffic control radar would not show enough detail to reveal several aircraft but because the radar could see that something was there and there was a transponder signal coming from that blip on the screen all that was recorded was one transport.
The bulk of Western IRST experience is held by Selex-ES, which is the lead contractor on the Typhoon’s Pirate IRST and the supplier of the Skyward-G for Gripen. In the past year, Selex has claimed openly that its IRSTs have been able to detect and track low-RCS targets at subsonic speeds, due to skin friction, heat radiating through the skin from the engine, and the exhaust plume. The U.S. Navy’s Greenert underscored this point in Washington in early February, saying that “if something moves fast through the air, disrupts molecules and puts out heat . . . it’s going to be detectable.”
IR has limited range, the fact is that for a solid lock a lot goes on within the processing unit of a radar missile or IRST. For a valid lock on a target the signals need to be above the mean noise level, little irregularity between these signals and lots of strong pulsed returns for a solid lock. 'Noise' being applicable to back ground clutter for IR signals or radar. 200 miles out the background clutter spectrum may overwhelm the signals given off by the presence of a target. For a solid lock you need a constant, above the clutter rejection threshold, regular and strong signal or else the signal that you get off the target will be dismissed as noise into the clutter. A fighter 200 miles out will give a small return, the return would be irregular, could be below the noise level.
The discovery of reflection of radio waves from solid objects was studied by Heinrich Hertz in 1886; subsequently Huelsmeyer in 1904 was the first to patent a detector (“Telemobiloscope”) which could detect metallic objects at a distance using radio waves. In 1922, Taylor and Young showed that range and bearing of ships can be determined using radio waves even in low visibility and darkness, but the US Navy did not accept their novel idea. Many patents were granted and work carried out in secrecy in a number of countries during the ensuing period till in 1934 the British decided to use it very effectively to detect and thereafter shoot down hostile German aircraft by using prototype radar made by Watson Watts. Automatic tracking of aircraft in azimuth and bearing and subsequently in range was also accomplished during the WWII itself.
Joe Rochefort, the unsung hero of the Battle of Midway, was able to crack the JN-25 code otherwise the Japanese Navy’s plan at Midway might very well have succeeded and Hawaii occupied by Japanese troops. The United States might have lost aircraft carriers Enterprise and Hornet in addition to Yorktown, instead of sinking Akagi, Kaga, Soryu, and Hiryu, turning the tide of the war in the Pacific. That one battle halted Japanese advances in the Pacific.
Post WWII, a major improvement was to introduce moving target indicator (MTI) function by using Doppler Effect, by which it was possible to discriminate between a stationary and a moving target. This was followed by the phased array antenna technology, which involved dynamic beam forming by combined operation of a number of individual transmitting elements. Strides in digital signal processing led to development of the synthetic aperture radar and consequently to high-resolution imagery.
India's Instrumentation Radar System (capable of measuring low RCS values) at the test range is co-developed by Bose Institute, Kolkata and Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology (Rangpo), Sikkim.
The Electronics and Radar Development Establishment (LRDE) was born as the Inspectorate of Scientific Stores at Rawalpindi, now in Pakistan, in 1939. It was moved to Dehradun in 1946, and renamed Technical Development Establishment (Instruments and Electronics). In 1958, the electronics activity was bifurcated into inspection and R&D. The Electronics Research & Development Establishment was formed in Bangalore. It moved to the present location in 1986.
Integrated Air Defence System
“Some say that the development of modern anti-access, area denial threats make an amphibious assault impossible. That has been said before and it was not true then and it is not true now. The challenge is to leverage the asymmetric advantages we have in functions like ISR, precision-first, and sea-basing. The challenge is to use the sea as a maneuver space in the context of the modern threat. We don’t need to give up on the capability. We need to think our way through the challenge.” - Maj. Gen. Robert Walsh.
During Operation Desert Storm, in addition to its anti-aircraft mission, Patriot BMD (Ballistic Missile Defense ) was assigned to shoot down incoming Iraqi Scud short range ballistic missiles launched at Israel and American troops (in Saudi Arabia). In the most devastating Iraqi stroke of the Gulf war, an Iraqi missile demolished a barracks housing more than 100 American troops on Monday night, killing 27 and wounding 98, the American military command in Riyadh said early today.
Shortly after Operation Desert Storm, the first war against Iraq in 1991, the U.S. Army claimed that an earlier model of the Patriot had intercepted 45 out of 47 Iraqi Scuds—a 95 percent success rate. Over the following year, the Army lowered its estimate, stating that Patriots intercepted 79% of the Scuds launched over Saudi Arabia and 40% of those fired at Israel. These remain the official figures today. A later report by the General Accounting Office concluded that Patriot missiles destroyed only 9% of the Scuds they tried to engage. The Israeli Defense Force calculated they'd destroyed just 2%. "The Patriot didn't work." William Cohen, secretary of defense, admitted upon leaving office in January 2001. Army officers weren't lying when making those earlier claims, but they were manipulating the fine print. A Patriot was counted as having made a successful "intercept" when it got within lethal range of the Scud and its fuse exploded. By this definition, a Patriot could "intercept" a Scud without necessarily destroying it. Many times during Desert Storm, officials thought that a Scud was shot down by a Patriot, when in fact the Scud had simply broken up into small fragments or gone far astray.
The PAC-3 utilizes a more precise, longer-range radar and faster data-processing systems. And the missile doesn't carry a warhead; rather, it is designed to slam into the target (this is why it's called an HTK, or "hit-to-kill," weapon). The new version of the air-defense weapon, known as the Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (or PAC-3) is said to have intercepted 4 of the 6 missiles that Iraq has fired at Kuwait. This is an impressive record, if true. However, the evidence is mixed on whether the PAC-3 can actually perform this complex task. It turns out that the software problems lead to computer arithmetic errors.
Through the 1950s and 1960s Soviet industry developed and manufactured a wide range of VHF band radars. By far the most numerous were of the Knife Rest and Spoon Rest series, deployed to support Frontal Aviation fighters, and as acquisition radars for the early S-75 Dvina / SA-2 Guideline Surface to Air Missile (SAM) system. The first to be deployed in strength were the P-8 Delfin / Knife Rest A and P-10 Knife Rest B, 2D radars using a now characteristic antenna arrangement with two rows of multiple element VHF Yagi antennas, attached to a rotating horizontal boom. These were soon followed by the more capable 180 kiloWatt peak power class P-12 Yenisei / Spoon Rest A, with an array of 12 Yagis.
Typically, however, those lower-frequency radars do not provide what Pentagon officials call a “weapons quality” track needed to guide a missile onto a target. “Even if you can see an LO [low observable] strike aircraft with ATC radar, you can’t kill it without a fire control system”. The problem with VHF and UHF band radars is that with long wavelengths come large radar resolution cells. That means that contacts are not tracked with the required level of fidelity to guide a weapon onto a target. These limitations can be overcome with signal processing. Phased array radars—particularly active electronically scanned arrays (AESA).
Stealth and electronic attack always have a synergistic relationship because detection is about the signal-to-noise ratio. Low observables reduce the signal, while electronic attack increases the noise.
KRTP-91 Tamara-M (NATO name: Trash Can) was the third gen Czechoslovak electronic support measures (ESM) system that was used to accurately detect and track airborne emitters. It has been succeeded by the VERA family of sensors. In 2004, the US blocked the sale of the Czech VERA-E passive detection systems to China, but the “Chinese had an opportunity to closely inspect the systems.” When China could not buy the VERA-E, they bought Ukrainian Kolchuga passive surveillance system.
China’s modern radars DWL002 uses paired primary wide band apparatus. Features such as heat absorbing surface materials, smooth surfaces and hidden engines render stealth aircraft like F-22 Raptor undetectable by conventional radar. However, China’s DWL002 passive radar system (which consists of three stations) reads the electronic signals emitted by aircraft to detect their presence. It can allegedly detect fighter aircraft (including stealth) within 400 km.
China originally imported this Ukrainian and later started domestic production after Ukraine provided the technologies to China. They also provided technical expertise in integrating the active phased array radar with ESM and the anti-stealth radar with Yagi antenna.
Suppression of Air Defences (SEAD) operations are military actions which suppresses and then destroys enemy SAMs and AAA sites, along with other air assets, giving friendly forces complete airspace superiority. By the mid-1960s aircraft like the two-seater F-100F were fitted with radar homing systems, which could detect and hone in on the radar signals emitted from an IFC. This was borne out of a projects called 'Wild Weasel' and "Iron Hand" aimed at developing counter-SAM technology and doctrine. The AGM-88 HARM missile in the 1980s, which can hit targets even if its radar is shutdown. The US and other western countries also started to rely more on stand-off weapons like cruise missiles.
The SA-6 mobile SAM system was used to protect Egypt’s ground forces while they retook the Sinai region from Israeli forces by shooting down many of Israel’s strike aircraft. The Israel suffered major losses to the new SA-6 missiles at the time, and only when Egypt’s army moved beyond the SA-6s protection zone did Israel regain an advantage in the conflict by using its air force. Fire control elements turn on radars at the last minute to achieve surprise and to avoid exposing themselves to enemy electronic or physical attack (including anti-radiation missiles). Operator training stresses electronic counter-countermeasure skills and the use of radio and electronic silence where possible.
Learning from the experience with the SA-6, Israel’s conflict with Syria in 1982 lead to new techniques using miniature air-launched drones carrying powerful new electronic counter like jamming equipment is used to interfere with radar signals from SAM sites. Those drones would have to be combined with stealthy long-range missiles. Both Gulf Wars in 1991 and 2003 and air operations over the Balkans, shows how effective this strategy can be. In the recent Libya campaign, the US and its allies did not lose a single aircraft to enemy fire - despite the Gaddafi regime fielding effective SAM technology.
Iran has also bought the Ukrainian Kolchuga passive surveillance system.
History of Scud
Project Devil was one of two early liquid-fueled missile projects developed by India, along with Project Valiant, in the 1970s. The goal of Project Devil was to reverse engineer the Soviet SA-2 Guideline missile.
DLDR spent nearly half of the budget allocated on importing equipment and supplies; it also subcontracted some of its labor, hiring the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited to cast a 350 kg magnesium liquid-fuel engine frame and a solid-booster rocket respectively.
Although discontinued in 1980 (after a review by ISRO) after achieving partial success (liquid propulsion was a failure), Project Devil components were subsequently modified and utilized as components in other systems and served as a precursors to the Prithvi missile developed in the 1980s.
DRDL was successful in establishing a world class ecosystem in Hyderabad, for establishing research, development testing and manufacturing of various types of missile systems.
At the time of the A-2 launches, a much more advanced rocket, the A-3, was already in advanced stage of design. However the development of the more powerful engine for the A-3 was beset by endless problems, which repeatedly delayed the project. The rocket's aerodynamic shape also went through three re-designs from July to September 1936, as wind tunnel tests revealed potential problems with its stability. Instead of a crude flywheel stabilization system, which kept the A-2 on course, the A-3 would sport a three-axis gyroscopic assembly, flight control jet rudders and rudder actuators.
Original plans called for the A-3 to break the sound barrier, but ever-increasing mass of payloads pushed that task beyond reach. Only after the ill-fated A-3 launch campaign was over, were the rocket's gyroscopes ultimately suspected to be culprit. As it transpired, a number of associates to Johannes Boykow, late head of the gyroscope development team, had questioned some of his solutions previously. In the end, an entire new flight control system was proposed with an estimated development cycle of 18 months. To test the new control system and other advanced features, a new A-5 rocket was proposed, while, the designation A-4 remained reserved for a much larger rocket, which had been conceived before the A-3 started flying.
The A-1 was the grandfather of most modern rockets. The engine, designed by Arthur Rudolph, used a pressure-fed propellant system burning alcohol and liquid oxygen, and produced 300 kgf of thrust for 16 seconds. Since the design was thought to be unstable, no further attempts were made, and efforts moved to the A2 design
The Aggregate series was a set of rocket designs developed in 1933–1945 by a research program of Nazi Germany's army. Its greatest success was the Aggregat-4 (A4), more commonly known as the V-2. The German word Aggregat refers to a group of machines working together.he German word Aggregat refers to a group of machines working together.
The V-2 was the most expensive development project of the Third Reich. Facing a worker shortage, the Nazis would turn to slave labor to continue production, mostly using prison camp inmates. It is estimated that 20,000 these slave laborers died in the production of the V-2.
The Scud is a mobile, Russian-made, short-range, tactical ballistic surface-to-surface (hence the nomenclature abbreviation SS) missile system. The SCUD-series guided missiles are single-stage, short-range ballistic missiles using storable liquid propellants. The Scud is derived from the World War II-era German V-2 rocket. Unlike the FROG series of unguided missiles, the SCUDs have movable fins.
The V-2 was the first ballistic missile used in warfare and a significant advancement in rocket technology. Also known as the A4, it was developed by Nazi Germany during World War II and used against the Allies, primarily as a terror weapon. Because it was so inaccurate (it could barely hit a city-size target). Adolf Hitler named it his "Vengeance Weapon 2"or "V-2" because it wreaked vengeance upon a helpless population. (The "Vengeance Weapon 1," or "V-1", was a cruise missile.)
Despite its relative inaccuracy, the V-2 incorporated several major technological advances in rocketry. Its engine was 17 times more powerful than the largest rocket motor constructed up to that time; it flew at five times the speed of sound; and it could still fly relatively accurately to targets nearly 190 miles (306 kilometers) away.
While the names of most ballistic missiles are obscure, the Scud has become almost a household name. The SS-1A 'Scud' was designed a short time after the end of World War II by captured German scientists and is based upon the Nazi V-2 rocket which was used against London in the second World War. In essence, the 'Scud' is the AK-47 of the missile world: reliable, simple and ubiquitous. The missile was produced in huge quantities and not even the Russians know exactly how many they built, let alone the number copied by foreign companies. Developed as a tactical ballistic missile by the Soviet Union during the Cold War, the SS-1 SCUD was exported to many other countries. Unlike the V-2, the Scud can be stored for years. It can be transported fully fuelled and set up and fired in 90 minutes.
("Mushak" short-range surface-to-surface primitive solid-fuel missile is comparable to the unguided Soviet Frog missile and to the Pakistani as Hatf 1 missile, which flies about 80 km. The first Mushak, also known as the Iran-130, was test-fired in early 1988, and was designed to fly to a maximum range of 130 km. By March 1988, five Mushak missiles had been fired at Iraq during the War of the Cities. And by August 1988, Tehran had test-fired a 160 km-range Mushak and announced that mass production would soon follow. Iran claimed that the Mushak was designed and produced without foreign support, but Chinese assistance was suspected.)
The SS-1B or R-11 Zemlya (Scud A) was soon replaced with the SS-1C or R-17 Elbrus (Scud B), also designated R-300 during the 1970s. The new missile had the advantage of being compatible with MAZ-543 transporter-erector-launcher (TEL) and could thus be deployed into position quickly and covertly. The launch sequence for each SS-1 SCUB-B can be conducted onsite, but was usually done from a command vehicle from a different location. The SCUD-B can carry nuclear, chemical, conventional or fragmentation warheads. By 1965, the new 'Scud B' missile was operational in many European and Middle Eastern counties. SCUD-B replacement system was 9K714 Oka (SS-23 Spider). This system was phased out in compliance with the INF Treaty in the late 1980s.
North Korea's Hwasong-5 was a derivative. North Korea obtained its first R-17 missiles from Egypt in 1979 or 1980, in return for assistance during the Yom Kippur War. Iran's ballistic missile program began during the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), when Iraq's air superiority prevented Iran from striking from ranges greater than 150km. In response, Iran acquired the Soviet R-17 (R-300; NATO: Scud-B) from Libya, resulting in the War of the Cities. The Shahab 1 (Meteor 1) is based off of the Hwasong-5 ‘Scud B’ platform. Since the late 1980s Tehran has actively sought to develop an indigenous missile program, relying heavily on missile components imported from North Korea in the 1980s and 1990s to establish this capability.
Near the end of 1948, Władysław (Józef Marian) Turowicz and 45 airforce veterans of World War II from Poland, opted to relocate to a country that was a rather new entry on the world map: Pakistan. Initially, they established technical institutes in Karachi. In 1967, Ayub Khan appointed Turowicz as head of the Aeronautical Engineering Division of Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO). He was the Chief Designer of the Sonmiani Satellite Launch Centre based in the coastal city of Sonmiani in southeast Balochistan. NASA had extensively used this facility to conduct its own space and rocket technology research during the Cold War.
Turowicz is generally credited for establishing rocket fuel factories and rocket technology research institutes and labs in Pakistan. Under Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, Turowicz was tasked with the responsibility of developing an indigenous missile program capable of carrying nuclear weapons. As a result, the Hatf Missile Program emerged in 1977 under his able guidance. He was responsible for the development of electronic delivery systems and inertial turbine engines for the rocket. Unfortunately, this was a period marked by severe political turmoil. Bhutto had been executed and General Zia-Ul-Haq had taken over. Turowicz and his team had to wait for several years before their hard work could materialize in operational form. Turowicz died in a car accident in 1980 along with his brother.
All Pakistani missiles are named Hatf (meaning “doom” in Arabic, but often mistranslated as “vengeance”). The missiles are numbered from I to IX, with each missile type also having a specific name.
No-dong-A is a liquid-fuel, single-stage ballistic missile of North Korean origin. It was inducted into service as Hatf-V Ghauri-1 in 2003 under Pakistan's 47th Missile Group. At that time, Pakistan did not have a missile to match Prithvi’s striking capabilities so they approached North Korea for Nodong missiles.
It became apparent in 1994 that North Korea had not only received the technology transfer from the Makeyev OKB, of the former Soviet Union but had also received the blueprint for the volatile R-27 Zyb (NATO: SS-N-6 Serb or SS-NX-13). One possible source for North Korea’s submarine-launched missile program is China, given its habit of assisting North Korea to obtain earlier generation strategic weapons. (China had covertly provided missile assistance in the past to North Korea with the KN-08 long-range missile, specifically the transfer of Chinese-made transporter-erector launchers.)
Russian officials, in talks with U.S. officials, denying any SS-N-6 missiles were sold to North Korea, claiming all were destroyed as part of the 1987 Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces treaty. On October 15, 1992, the Russian, Security Ministry's officers stopped 64 Russian missile specialists from Miass with their family members at Moscow's Sheremetyevo-2 airport where they were preparing to leave on a flight to North Korea. Again on November 5, 1992 the Russian, Security Ministry personnel stopped 60 Russian missile specialists 40 of which were missile specialist from Miass while the remaining 10-20 were nuclear specialists at Moscow's Sheremetyevo-2 airport where they were preparing to leave on a flight to North Korea. Yet again on December 8, 1992, 36 nuclear specialists were stopped by the Russian Security Ministry personnel. Ultimately at least 17-20 missile specialist and 9 nuclear specialists made it to North Korea via China and are believed to have remained there. It turned out that these technical personnel were from the Miass, V.P. Makayev OKB, the submarine-launched ballistic missile design bureau.
North Korea has fielded a new intermediate-range ballistic missile with a range of 1,800 miles, according to South Korea’s Defense Ministry. It reportedly used Russian SS-N-6 submarine-launched ballistic missile technology for the mobile, land-based missile. It is believed to be liquid-fueled with one or two stages. Some reports say North Korea put the new missile on display during a 2007 military parade.
North Korea has cooperated with Iran on submarine training. In November 2007, U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates announced that North Korea had sold Iran a missile with a range of 2,500 kilometers. This appeared to confirm earlier press reports that Iran had acquired the BM-25, a modified version of the Soviet SS-N-6, which is a single-stage, liquid-fueled, submarine-launched ballistic missile with a range of 2,400 to 3,000 km and the ability to carry a nuclear warhead.
SCUD D: Single stage, liquid-fueled missile with a range of up to 500 miles. Known in North Korea by the name Hwasong, the SCUD B and SCUD C can reach only South Korea, but the SCUD D could target Japan. Accuracy is extremely poor. Ballistic missile programs in Pakistan and Iran were built on SCUD technology, which originated in the Soviet Union.
In October 2005, Russia launched Iran's first satellite, the Sina-1, on a Russian rocket. From that point, Iran began to pursue the technology needed to launch a satellite into space on its own. February 2008 saw the inauguration of an Iranian space center in Semnan Province, marked by the test launch of Iran's Kavoshgar 1 two-staged liquid-propellant-driven rocket, probably a derivative of the Shahab-3.
SCUD-C or Rodong / Nodong: Nodong is almost identical to Iran’s Shahab-3 and Pakistan’s Ghauri II (Hatf VI), the strongest evidence of the countries’ collaboration and of North Korea’s sale of technology and missile equipment to others. All three countries continue to refine the design.
They are single-stage, liquid-fuel missiles on mobile launchers. Estimated range of around 900 kms and maximum payload of 2,200 pounds. The Shahab-3, like the North Korean No-Dong missile from which it is derived, is a scaled-up version of the Scud B and Scud C missiles, and shares the Scud's weaknesses. Most have fairly poor accuracy, though some may have been fitted with warhead separation and more modern guidance systems. The Scud B is only accurate to within about a kilometer of its target at a range of 300 km. Japan is the likely target of this short-range missile.
Out of Shahab-3 came the Ghadr (Qadr) -110 (“Ghadr” the Persian word for “Intensity”) whose range extends to 1,800-2,000 km. Ghadr’s are much easier to field than the liquid-fuel Shahabs. Iran claims that these variants have a greater range (up to 2,000 km) and throw weight (750 – 1,000 kg), as well as improved accuracy.
The U-2 incident of May 1960, in which an American CIA U-2 spy plane was shot down over the USSR, stunned the United States government. The incident showed that Russia had developed a surface-to-air missile that could reach aircraft above 60,000 feet.
The U.S. Navy developed an anti-radiation missile (ARM) to counter Soviet-built surface-to-air missiles' radars. SAMs were ineffective against low-flying aircraft, and interceptor aircraft did not have as large a speed advantage at low-level. If they dared to switch on their radars and track U.S. aircraft, SAM operators ran the very real risk of having a Shrike or Standard ARM, not to mention cluster or iron bombs, crashing into their compounds.
The US SEAD/DEAD campaign in Vietnam, what is abundantly clear is that the combination of jamming and lethal attacks against missile batteries and supporting radars worked. The Soviet reaction to the IADS debacle in Vietnam, and the not entirely convincing performance during the Yom Kippur conflict, and the subsequent Syrian debacle in 1982, was to develop a new generation of SAMs and radars, with more range, better jam resistance, and importantly much better mobility. The distinguishing features of this late Cold War generation of IADS systems were in very high mobility, all three of these systems being capable of firing five minutes after coming to a halt, and being capable of departing a location within 5 minutes of completing a missile engagement. The S-300PS/PM and S-300V both employed high power, and for that period, exceptionally long ranging phased array engagement radars, much more difficult to jam than the engagement radars in the SA-2, SA-3 and SA-6 deployed and used during the 1960s and 1970s, and much more difficult to target with anti-radiation missiles. Importantly, the SA-10, SA-11 and SA-12 employed radio frequency data-links, which allowed the battery command posts, engagement radars and missile launch vehicles considerable flexibility in how the battery was deployed geographically.
Iraqi deployment doctrine of that period paid little attention to mobility, with SAM batteries nearly always fixed in location. The overwhelming and indeed crushing defeat of Saddam’s Soviet and French supplied IADS in 1991 was the result of a concentrated, coordinated and sustained effort using aerial decoys, SEAD/DEAD assets, jammers against IADS radars, and the F-117A against key hardened command posts. To achieve the intended effect against this legacy IADS, the US expended hundreds of drones, and importantly, around 2,000 AGM-88 HARM anti-radiation missiles.
The next significant air campaign was the 1999 Operation Allied Force effort against Serbia. The Serbian SAMs and radars were largely of the same vintage and subtypes, as those used by the Iraqis and Syrians but disciplined “shoot and scoot” tactics by the Serbian defenders, intended to keep missile batteries alive, resulted in a persistent threat of sniping attacks which kept much of the NATO force of F-16CJs, EA-6Bs and Tornado ECRs occupied chasing SAM systems, largely to no avail. The Serbians did execute one particularly successful ambush, killing an F-117A stealth fighter using a legacy SA-3 missile battery. NATO forces launched 743 AGM-88 HARM anti-radiation missile rounds for very little damage effect – around one third of the number used to cripple Iraq’s much larger air defence system in 1991.
A single SA-3 battery, commanded by then LtCol Zoltan Dani, downed an F-117A and an F-16C, and damaged another F-117A. Prior to the conflict, Dani worked his crew for weeks in the simulator, driving up proficiency and crew teamwork. During the conflict, he relocated his battery as frequently as possible, and exercised strict emission control. His battery survived and inflicted the single most embarrassing combat loss the US has suffered for decades.
While Russian SAMs did not perform well either in the Bekaa Valley air battles of 1982 or the Libyan air strikes of 1986, the USSR has confronted its difficulties with a proven strategy of vastly increasing concentration and reducing critical maintenance difficulties. Alternate firing positions, defensive ambush attacks, regular repositioning of mobile SAMs to confuse enemy intelligence, emission control and the clever emplacement of decoy SAM sites are fundamental considerations for the effective deployment and survivability of ground-based air defences.
All recent Russian & Chinese SAM systems are mobile. It can “shoot and scoot” in 5 minutes and can redeploy inside 15 minutes. Their engagement and acquisition radars are automatic pseudorandom frequency hoppers, many in fact “fast” frequency hoppers with pulse-to-pulse hopping capability to resist jamming. If some of the emitters are destroyed by the ARM, the system’s adaptive algorithms make the changes needed to allow the remaining emitters to continue protecting the radar.
The preference for L-band and VHF-band (lower bands) is intended to defeat stealth shaping and coatings optimised for S-band and X-band threats, but also electronic warfare self protection systems most of which cannot jam below the S-band due to antenna size limitations. VHF radar can't do fire-control, but they can see you. With low-frequency radars, they can tell which way to look.
Phased Array Antenna Technology (AESA) provide agile beam steering, adaptive jammer nulling, adaptive allocation of transmit power, in addition to very low sidelobe emissions to frustrate emitter locating systems and anti-radiation missile seekers. They also permit high update rate angle and range tracking of multiple targets.
Non Cooperative Target Recognition (NCTR) & Space Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) techniques based on target return fine structure are now appearing in Russian radar designs. Track fusion algorithms, which are the basis of the US Navy Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC) system, are now available in at least one Russian design, the Salyut Poima E .
Countermeasures suites on SAM systems include Radio frequency emitting and visual decoys, smoke generator to defeat laser and television guided smart weapons, flare dispenser to defeat infra-red and imaging infra-red guided smart weapons, and a chaff dispenser.
Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) techniques involve the use of exceptional frequency agility, noise-like waveforms, and controlled emission patterns, to make the interception of radar or data-link transmissions exceptionally difficult.
With the exception of a handful of technologies, such as advanced low observables, high density chip design, and X-band active phased array (AESA) modules, Russian industry has closed the gap in most key areas of IADS related technology.
Greater power requires a larger radar antenna and/or a more powerful transmitter, but up goes the size, weight and cost of the radar, and down goes its transportability. Unfortunately, it you are going for a vehicle-mounted surveillance radar, you are inevitable facing the opposite trend – the need for a smaller antenna and limitations in transmitter power. High speed missiles close the distance significantly. Stealth aircrafts further reduces the coverage of each radar, creating large gaps within enemy airspace through which the attacker can fly with impunity. Advanced ARMs combine a passive anti-radiation homing head with a second channel able to lock & “remember” the threat emitter, even after the latter has shut down or loiter over the battlefield as anti-radar drones. Airborne laser targeting is another example.
Joint Strike Missile is a version of the Naval Strike Missile long-range, over-the-horizon (OTH) stealthy missile developed by Raytheon & Norway's Kongsberg. A long-ranged SAM can be guided to an enemy target in the sky, only as long as target illumination is provided by terrestrial sensors like fire-control radar. However, given the Earth’s curvature, there’s no way a ground-based target illuminator will be able to illuminate a target flying 400km away. Only a fire-control radar is sitting atop a high mountain will it be able to illuminate targets like AEW & CS platforms. Due to this reality, LR-SAMs are definitely not cost-effective AEW & CS killers. Instead, the best killer alternative is a stealthy loitering PGM that can generate EMP pulses when in close proximity to the airborne AEW & CS platform, since the location of any AEW & CS platform can be localised by fighter on-board RWR sensor.
The highly-advanced stealthy LRASM (a version of JASSM-ER) missile is able to actively evading or attacking even the world’s most capable air defense systems, by knocking out its electronics and sensors. If a swarm of these missiles were networked together, they could work as a team to suppress the enemy’s ability to communicate and defend itself in real time without any direction from human operators.
The Coast Guard and Navy could also potentially use similar devices to disable unresponsive ships or those that are swarming around surface combatants in a combined attack. In one sense, it is a psychological weapon, capable of blinding an enemy before they even know that a larger-scale attack is coming. Although, very expensive, this precise ‘soft kill’ capability solves so many modern day security and defense problems that it could very well revolutionize the way we look at ‘striking’ a target.
With its high launch weight, heavyweight warhead and long range, the Armat is primarily an offensive strategic ARM designed to destroy Early Warning and Ground Control Intercept radars. This is where it differs fundamentally from the HARM and the ALARM, which are built to also perform as defensive ARMs carried as part of a mixed weapon load.
The Indian Air Force wants the AGM-88E which weighs 361 kg (794 pounds) and can detect and attack targets more than 150 kilometers away while travelling at a speed of 2,450 kilometers per hour.
KH-55SM Granat also known as RKV-500A and RKV-500B (NATO name: AS-15A & AS-15B Kent) air-launched strategic cruise missile. The Kh-55 family of cruise missiles owes its origins to a series of internal studies at the Raduga OKB during the early 1970s. Raduga’s early work on these weapons was opposed by many Russian experts who were deeply sceptical of the viability of such a complex new weapon, but this changed as public knowledge of the US Air Launched Cruise Missile program became better known in the Soviet Union. The cancellation of the ambitious Kh-90 ramjet missile due to INF treaty in 1987 led to a renewed emphasis on improving the accuracy of the Kh-55. The X-55SM modification provided for increased range with the installation of expendable conformal external fuel tanks, giving it an estimated range of 3,000 kilometers (1,860 miles).
The Kh-55 family of weapons most closely resemble the early US BGM-109 Tomahawk in concept. The most visible difference between the Tomahawk and Kh-55 families of missiles is the engine installation.
Unlike contemporary US weapons which use complex anti-tamper techniques in the software and integrated hardware, the Kh-55 predates this model by a generation. As such the electronics in the guidance system can be readily reversed engineered using commercial components, and the structure and engine use commodity materials technologies. The only components in the design which could present difficulties for a new player are the engine turbine and combustors. It is powered by a single 400 kgf Ukrainian-made, Motor Sich JSC R95-300 turbofan engine, with pop-out wings for cruising efficiency. It can be launched from both high and low altitudes, and flies at subsonic speeds at low levels. Current-production versions are equipped with the increased power of 450 kgf Russian-made NPO Saturn TRDD-50A engine.
A 1995 Russian document suggested a complete production facility had been transferred to Shanghai, for the development of a nuclear-armed cruise missile. At the end of 1999 there were 575 cruise missiles of air basing X-55 and X-55SM delivered from Ukraine to Russia by rail transport on account of liquidation of debt for the deliveries of gas. China illegally acquired six Kh-55SM missiles in April 2000, samples from the Ukraine, who then permit the development of a cloned variant. To date indigenous Chinese cruise missiles have not matched the range performance of the Kh-55 series.
CH-10 / CJ-10 was developed from the X-600 subsonic cruise missile, the new design incorporates elements of the Soviet Kh-55 cruise missiles. China may also have acquired several American Tomahawk missiles from Pakistan and Afghanistan, after the missiles were fired in a failed attack on the Al Qaeda in 1998. The knowledge from these missiles may have been used in the CJ-10/YJ-62 project.
Besides the land attack variant, a possible shore to ship variant has also been rumored to be in Chinese service. Many Taiwan and Hong Kong media sources believe that the weapon has been developed to counter the US Navy's Carrier battle groups, with the aim of a land-based carrier destruction capability.
Iran's Soumar air-launched strategic cruise missile. DPRK acquiring cruise missile technology from Iran who got six Kh-55SM in June 2001 from Ukraine. Given the well documented earlier collaboration between Iran and the DPRK on IRBM development and production, an analogous play using reverse engineered Kh-55s is entirely credible. Also the entire Kh-55SM/Korshun smuggling operation (from late 1997 to August 2001) was bankrolled by Iran, Tehran in early 1998 staked its claim for leading the R&D effort aimed at producing the Korshun into a ground/sea-launched LACM with industrial help from China and Pakistan.
The Kh-65 missile is a tactical modification of the strategic Kh-55. The reduced range is a product of compliance with the SALT-2 treaty. The Kh-65SE is a derivative of Kh-65 cruise missile intended as a long range, aircraft-launched, sea-skimming anti-ship missile. It features an active radar seeker added to the Kh-55 navigation system for the terminal phase of the flight engagement.
The Kh-SD may be an improved version of the Kh-65 precision-attack cruise missile, which was promoted by the Russians in the early 1990s, along with a "Kh-65E" antiship variant. The Kh-SD is reportedly a smaller version of the Kh-101 but may have an active radar seeker. It is described as the short range tactical version of the Kh-101.
36MT small-sized turbofan engine is designed for small, low-flying means, especially for anti-ship cruise missile. The engine was developed by NPO Saturn, using the experience of the previous project "Izdělije 36". The engine is similar to US F107-WR-400, and has about 20 to 30% higher thrust. Engine development began after the collapse of the USSR, where the manufacturer has hitherto used R95 engine remained outside Russia, with Ukraine.
Structurally, the motor consists of a single-stage blower with wide blades, compressor, annular combustor, single-stage, single-stage low-pressure and high-pressure turbine, part of the engine there is a power generator 4 kW. The motor is controlled by an electro-hydraulic system. 36MT engine with low fuel consumption, resistance sucked dirt and adverse weather conditions, and the ability to self-destruction surge.
The Type 517 radar is an VHF (A-band) air search radar widely deployed on PLA-N surface vessels with 4 antennas in two crossed-brace supported pairs, one above the other, mounted in pairs on each side of a single tubular support carried on the turning gear. These A-band radars have an operating range of about 150-200 km. It has an added Yagi-Uda "beam antenna" antenna, commonly known simply as a Yagi antenna, which is a directional antenna which achieves a very substantial increase in the antenna's directionality. China's Type 517M (successor to Type 517H long-range 2D air search radar) is a VHF search radar designed to detect and track stealth targets such as the US Air Force F/A-22A Raptor and the F-35 Lightning II. The Type 517M radar is based upon Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) technology and has been installed on the newer warships Type 052C and Type 052D destroyers. Seems like Chinese navy really likes the anti-stealth quality of this radar vs the possible benefits of a more modern volume search radar like S1850M.
The antenna was invented in 1926 by Shintaro Uda of Tohoku Imperial University, Japan, with a lesser role played by his colleague Hidetsugu Yagi. This appears to have been due to Yagi filing a patent on the idea in Japan without Uda's name in it, and later transferring the patent to the Marconi Company in the UK. Yagi antennas were first widely used during World War II in radar systems by the British, US and Germans. After the war they saw extensive development as home television antennas.
By the early 1960s the basic P-12 was replaced by the improved P-12M, followed by the P-12MP. Later variants such as the P-12MA and P-12NA introduced the characteristic two van arrangement, and included sidelobe cancellers to deal with clutter and US jamming equipment, a facility for strobed or short burst emissions to defeat US anti-radiation missiles, as well as a remote operator station allowing the radar crew to be located 1,500 ft from the radar head.
By the late 1970s, Soviet air defence commanders sought a more capable mobile 2D VHF radar, and development of the 1L13 Nebo SV / Box Spring was initiated in 1981. The 1L13 Nebo SV / Box Spring was accepted into service in 1986, and widely deployed with Soviet PVO-SV, V-PVO and Frontal Aviation VVS units. The system can be deployed or stowed in 40 minutes. A separate IFF interrogator is carried by trailer, and linked to the 1L13 control van. Less known is the fact that the much larger 55Zh6UE Nebo U/UE 3D semi-mobile radar shares a large number of components with the 1L13 series, as both were designed concurrently.
The Nebo SVU departs from the Nebo SV in many respects. It is a solid state phased array with electronic beamsteering in azimuth and elevation, it is considerably more accurate, it has much better mobility. It retains the VHF element design, but uses vertical polarisation. Deployed as a target acquisition radar for a modern SAM system like the S-300PMU1/2 / SA-20 Gargoyle or S-400 / SA-21 Growler it will significantly complicate engagement tactics for users of VLO/LO fighters, as it can not only deny surprise engagement of the missile battery, but it is accurate enough to provide midcourse guidance data for both Surface-Air Missile shots and Air-Air Missile shots.
These lacked an integral height finding capability and relied wholly on integration with external, typically S-band, nodding heightfinders. Confronted with the shock of Saddam's air defence system being utterly impotent against the F-117A.
The choice of vertical polarisation is unusual for a VHF design intended to track aerial targets, and is best explained by the dual role use of the radar for ballistic missile defence purposes, as the shape of ballistic missile targets presents a higher RCS in the vertical polarisation. Russian literature covering the 1L119 describes it as capable of detecting and tracking aircraft and ballistic missile class targets. For a VHF DMTI the issue is rejection of ground clutter, but also other unwanted effects such as Doppler shifted chaff and weather.
In solid propellant, surface area of the burning propellant is critical in determining the amount of thrust being generated. Cracks in the solid propellant increase the exposed surface area, thus the propellant burns faster than planned. If too many cracks develop, pressure inside the engine rises significantly and the rocket engine may explode. Hence, manufacture of a solid propellant is an expensive, precision operation.
Unfortunately, pure liquid propellant (fuel and oxidizer) rockets require complex storage tanks, complex plumbing, precise fuel and oxidizer injection metering, high speed/high capacity pumps, and difficulty in storing fueled rockets. Liquid propellant rockets have the highest energy per unit of fuel mass, variable thrust, and a restart capability.
AD-STAR is a digital radar that combines advanced technology for a large number of beams that simultaneously scan selected areas. As a result, the radar provides precise 3D data about the located targets, while simultaneously carrying out several other tasks, such as classifying and following a large number of targets, guiding weapons for defense and assault, air control, and more. The radar can be transported via air, sea, or land, and can be quickly deployed in the field.
Another $4 million contract was also signed between Elta and a foreign client for supplying air defense radar systems. The ELM-2106NG three-dimensional radar is used for tactical defense and is intended for supporting ground forces. The radar increases the survivability of the forces against air attacks of helicopters, low-altitude fighters, and airborne weapon systems. The radar system identifies a wide range of air platforms, and provides precise information about them such as the range, azimuth, and height of each target. The radar systems thus allow for utilizing effective protective measures against the threats that endanger tactical ground forces.
In a contract valued at $39 million, Elta will supply an unnamed foreign client with three-dimensional fire-control radar systems for surface-to-air weapon systems such as cannons and missiles. The fire-control radar system seeks and follows targets with high maneuverability that includes fighter aircraft and missiles.
The radar’s advanced Active Electronically Steered Array (AESA) technology supports a number of high-level capabilities.
The basic DF-21 is a 15 ton, two stage, solid fuel missile that is 10.7 meters (35 feet) long and 140cm (4.6 feet) in diameter. Range varies (from 1,700-3,000 kilometers) depending on model. The DF-21D is believed to have a range of 1,500-2,000 kilometers.
China has reportedly developed and tested the world's first high hypersonic, land-based, anti-ship ballistic missile (ASBM) called DF-21D, with a maximum range of around 2,700 kilometres in 2005, according to the US. It is estimated to have reached initial operating capability in 2007 or 2008. It could develop into a "MIRVd" DF-21D with multiple independent missiles. Four land-based DF-21 variants are operational, and the derivative ineffective JL-1 SLBM. DF-21 variants serve as the basis for the KT-1 space launch vehicle and the SC-19 direct-ascent ASAT weapon system.
There is also the fear that some of US technology is already deployed on the DF-21 series of missiles, with stolen Pershing II Missile guidance. As the story goes, the Chinese have reverse engineered, reinvented or stolen the 1970s technology that went into the U.S. Pershing ballistic missile. This 7.5 ton U.S. Army missile also had an 1,800 kilometers range, and could put its nuclear warhead within 30 meters of its aim point. This was possible because the guidance system had its own radar. This kind of accuracy made the Russians very uncomfortable, as it made their command bunkers vulnerable and agreed to a lot of nuclear and missile disarmament deals in order to get the Pershings decommissioned in the 1980s.
This would be the world's first ASBM and the world's first weapons system capable of targeting a moving aircraft carrier strike group from long-range, land-based mobile launchers. These would combine manoeuvrable re-entry vehicles (MaRVs) with some kind of terminal guidance system. On the DF-21D warhead itself, sensors would use infrared (heat seeking) technology for their final approach. Such a missile may have been tested in 2005-6, and the launch of the Jianbing-5/YaoGan-1 and Jianbing-6/YaoGan-2 satellites would give the Chinese targeting information from SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) and visual imaging respectively. The United States Navy has responded by switching its focus from a close blockade force of shallow water vessels to return to building deep water ballistic defence destroyers.
DS-21 is too fast for the Pac-3 anti-missile missiles Taiwan is installing around crucial installations. The DF-21D so far has not yet proved its ability to strike a carrier-sized target over the horizon. True, the problem could be solved by placing a nuclear warhead on the missile, but that “solution” would invite a massive U.S. response, one reason that China emphasizes the conventional capabilities of the DF-21D.
Use of such missile has been said by some experts to potentially lead to nuclear exchange, regional arms races with India and Japan, and the end of the INF Treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union, to which the People's Republic of China is not a party.
China is reported to be working on an Over-the-horizon radar to locate the targets for the ASBM.
China developed the solid-fuel, medium-range DF-21 through the 1980s, with deployment starting in the early 1990s. Deployments did not begin in earnest, however, until the late 1990s. The Chinese refer to having two variants of the missile — the DF-21 and the DF-21A, which correspond to the IC designation CSS-5 Mod 1 and Mod 2, respectively.
As early as 2005, descriptions of the long-awaited conventional DF-21 were described as the DF-21C — which would presumably correspond to a CSS-5 Mod 3. That seems to be the mystery missile carried by various pictures of China’s shiny new TEL.
It is speculated that the missile is actually Chinese exported A-100 Weishi multi-missile launcher system (which is not a copy of Russia's Smerch 9K58 multi-tube rockets as previously thought). The A-100 system is China's first attempt to break into the tactical weapons market.
It has a range of 60 km and in-flight maneuver capability. Its purpose is to quickly deter any conventional responds from India even after they had strike first. Its in-flight maneuverability is being improved to defeat potential Indian missile defenses against artillery rockets and short-range ballistic missiles, such as the Israeli Iron Dome system.
All Pakistani missiles are named Hatf (meaning “doom” in Arabic, but often mistranslated as “vengeance”). The missiles are numbered from I to IX, with each missile type also having a specific name.
Iskander-M (also known as the SS-26 Stone) new road-mobile tactical missile system was the second attempt to replace the Scud missile since the first attempt, the Oka (SS-23), was eliminated under the INF Treaty.
The Iskander appeared to have several different conventional warheads, including a cluster munitions warhead, a fuel-air explosive enhanced-blast warhead, an earth penetrator for bunker busting and an electro-magnetic pulse device for anti-radar missions.
Iskander-K – top secret version with Cruise missile P-500 with range up to 2000 km
Prahaar, an omni–directional, hypersonic, multi-warhead missile, in response to Pakistan’s TNW carrier Hatf-9, has blunted Pakistan’s strategic advantage. DRDO developed Prahaar (to strike) in two years, to specifically bridge the gap in the range between the unguided Pinaka rocket, which has a range of 45 km, and the guided Prithvi missile variants, that can take out targets 250 km to 350 km away. Prahaar can image, take out multiple targets and can be moved to any place. It carries a 200-kg conventional warhead. The ‘Prahaar’ reportedly boasts a three-element flight-control system, with the third and final stage comprising only the manoeuvring warhead section.
A separate wheeled vehicle is being developed to act as a missile resupply station, carrying six canister missile rounds. Prahaar is a unique missile because it has high maneuverability, very high acceleration and excellent impact accuracy. It will bridge the gap between the multi-barrel rocket system, Pink and the Prithvi missiles. Basically, it will be a battlefield support system for the Army.
It would not be wrong to claim that the 'Prahaar' is an Israel Aerospace Industries-built EXTRA long-range artillery rocket with Indian characteristics. Thus, the solid-fuelled ‘Prahaar’ is, in essence, a product that overcomes all the deficiencies displayed by the Prithvi family of battlefield support missiles (the SS-150, SS-250 and SS-350), which makes uses of liquid fuel and is consequently cumbersome both in terms of transportation and launch readiness procedures. The ‘Prahaar’ will eventually replace all existing Prithvi SS-150 missiles that are now deployed by the three Missile Groups attached to the Indian Army’s two Field Artillery Divisions.
Highlights of Missile: A few Prahaar missiles could do the job of many Pinaka rockets, in devastating wide areas. It is an all-weather missile that can be launched from canisters. Since it can be fired from a road mobile launcher, it can be quickly transported to different places. It can be deployed in various kinds of terrain such as snow-bound areas or jungles.
With its range of 150 km, it is comparable to the Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS) of the United States. Prahaar can carry different types of conventional warheads. Six Prahaar missiles can be launched in salvo mode in different directions.
The missile has a quick reaction time, that is, it can be launched within a few minutes. It has sophisticated inertial navigation, guidance and electro-mechanical actuation systems. Its onboard computer helps it to home in on the targets with an accuracy of 10 meters. Prahaar is a single stage missile, propelled by solid fuel. It is 7.3 meters tall, has a diameter of 42 cm and weighs 1.3 tonnes. The missile reaches a height of 35 km before reaching the targets 150 km away. According to DRDO, India's interceptor missile was converted into Prahaar. That is why it has a range of 150 km.
According to DRDO Prithvi was never a quick-reaction system and its flight trajectory can be easily tracked by early warning radars as it is a single-stage missile. But 'Prahaar' boasts a three- element flight-control system, with the third and final stage comprising only the maneuverings warhead section.
The Prahaar is expected to replace all existing Prithvi SS-150 missiles that are now deployed by the three Missile Groups attached to the Indian Army's two Field Artillery Divisions. Being multi-directional and auto loading in nature, Prahar will be extremely useful in emergency situations. Its launch time is estimated to be two to three minutes and no preparation is required. The missile has been under development for the past four years. It was first unveilled in 2010.
Missile's Strategic Importance: The Prahaar is the latest missile to be added to India's arsenal of ballistic missiles and was developed keeping in mind the Indian Army's 'Cold Start' doctrine, which envisions a rapid thrust by armored regiments into Pakistan in the event of a provocation. The Prahaar would play a key role in disrupting and destroying enemy infrastructures as well as lines of communication before Indian ground forces move in.
The missile was developed with two main factors in mind- accuracy and rapid response. Accuracy was important as it allows for the targeting of individual, tactical targets, as opposed to an artillery strike or rocket barrage which is usually directed at broader areas of impact.
The Prahaar is also designed to carry various types of sub-munitions or a unitary warhead. For example, it will be able to carry up to 400 AT/AP bomblets, scatterable mines, anti-runway munitions and similar loads, making it effective for a wide number of targets.
The Prahaar's payload compartment is being developed by the DRDO in cooperation with Israel Aircraft Industries' (IAI) MLM Systems Integration Division and Israel Military Industries' (IMI) Rocket Systems Division. Prahar would fill the gap for a battlefield weapon system in the country's missile arsenal and would replace the unguided Pinaka and Smirch rockets of 90 km range.
Development of the DF-11 began in 1985, with the DF-11A following in 1993. Chinese M-11 has been exported to Pakistan in early 1990s where it forms the basis of the Hatf-3 Ghaznavi solid-fuel, tactical ballistic missile. DF11 (M11) & DF15 (M9) has a range of 280-300kms with one ton warhead and a range of 600 kilometers with half ton warhead. Presently, the Pakistan Army deploys two Missile Groups each of the Ghauri-1 and Ghaznavi.
Originally shown as part of the M-18 two-stage system in 1987, components of the M-11 (and possibly the M-9) have been sold to Pakistan, in an effort to bypass the MTCR (Missile Technology Control Regime) guidelines. The US then initiated economic sanctions on both countries in 1993. Despite denials by both countries, it is widely believed that Pakistan has at least 80 M-11s and 50 launchers, which are believed to be the basis of its Hatf-3 Ghaznavi missile program development. (note: Hatf-4 is Shaheen 1; Hatf-5 is ghauri 2 & Hatf-6 is Shaheen-II) By early 1990, Pakistan had inked a $516 million deal with China to establish localised facilities for servicing a total of 64 solid-fuelled missiles such as the Hatf-3 Ghaznavi and Hatf-4 Shaheen-1.
A successor of B-611, B-611M has been developed and entered Chinese service, utilizing the experienced gained from both B-611 and P-12 missiles. The basic performance of B-611M is similar to that of B-611, but the firepower is doubled when adopting the same practice of P-12 missile: putting two missiles on a single transporter / erector / launcher.
The Turkish J-600T SRBM is based on the B-611 SRBM developed by China as a low cost tactical missile system, with a range of up to 250 km in improved versions such as the B-611M, and as a replacement for the M-11 (CSS-7 and DF-11) missiles in Chinese inventory.
The development of the missile closely mirrors that of the Chinese B-611, a missile that shares similar size and performance specifications with the Zelzal missiles. Because the solid-propellant technology used in the Zelzal missiles represents a huge advance in Iranian missile technology, it is likely that the missiles were developed with some Chinese assistance. Iran's Fateh 110 or Syria's M-600, believed to be a guided version of the Zelzal-2, is an Iranian copy of the Chinese DF-11 ballistic missile. While the program is based in Iran, the missile is believed to incorporate components from Chinese contractors. In 2010 some of these were transferred to Hezbollah.
It uses a single-stage solid propellant engine and has a range of 210 km (130 miles), although it is possible that Iran will add extra boosters in order to increase its range to 400 km (249 miles). The missile might be as accurate as 100 m CEP using a combination of inertial guidance and a Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) system, though some sources suggest that the accuracy is much lower, as they do not think that the missile is capable of much inflight maneuvering or correction. Iranian sources claim that the weapon has a high degree of accuracy, a claim that would suggest in-flight control systems that are not apparent from photos of the missile. For stabilization, the Zelzal missiles use spin-motors that create a gyroscopic effect. The lack of a guidance system makes the system only useful as an artillery system to bombard a general area or a large target. Although Iran has improved the missile's overall ability, its accuracy makes the Fateh A-110 ineffective against moving military targets. However, the missile is capable of hitting most large military targets such as bases and airfields.
The Fateh A-110 is designed to replace many of the aging Scud systems currently used in the Middle East. A 2008 report suggested that Syria was building a surface to surface missile with Iranian assistance, the A-110B (or Fateh 3).
HQ-6 is a ground-to-air version of the PL-11 air-to-air missile which is largely based on the Italian Selenia Aspide missile (similar to AIM-7 Sparrow missile).
note- FROG-7B (9K52, 9M52, R-70), Luna-M: The FROG-7B, introduced in 1968, is essentially the same rocket as the FROG-7A but with a longer warhead section. The FROG-7 is the latest addition to the "Free Rocket Over Ground" family of unguided, spin-stabilized, short-range (battlefield support) artillery rockets. The rocket is of conventional single-stage design, with a cylindrical warhead of the same diameter as the rocket body, giving it a cleaner, more modern appearance than its predecessors. The FROG-7 has a range of 70 km and a 550 kg warhead, and an impact area of approximately 2.8 km long by 1.8 km wide.
The FROG-7 was replaced by the SS-21 tactical ballistic missile which has greater range (120 km) as well as probable improvements in reaction time, missile reliability, accuracy, and handling characteristics. Since the SS-21 is mounted on a six-wheeled TEL similar to the SA-8/GECKO SAM system, it has improved cross-country capability and is probably amphibious. Like the SA-8, it probably has an air filtration and overpressure system for-collective chemical and biological protection. The SS-21 was first deployed in 1976 in the USSR.
As of 1987 the Soviets were replacing FROGs with the more accurate, longer range SS-21s in some divisions opposite NATO. Non-nuclear versions of the FROG-7 have been exported to both Warsaw Pact and some non-Warsaw Pact nations. The FROG-7 is deployed by Cuba, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, North Korea, Syria, and Yemen. Laith, an Iraqi improved version of the FROG-7, has a 90 km range. The FROG-7 (9K52 Luna), the final version of the FROG family, is an unguided, spin-stabilized, short-range, battlefield support artillery rocket.
600-km ranged Shaurya is a canisterised surface-to-surface tactical ballistic missile variant of K-15 or B-05 Sagarika nuclear-capable submarine-launched medium-range ballistic missile (whose name has been variously given as Sagarika or even Dhanush, officially code named as Programme B-05). It is 12 m long, 0.8 m wide, uses a two-stage solid propellant and has a range of 3,000-3,500 km. Its launch weight is 17,000 kg and it can carry a 2,000 kg warhead which is likely to be a nuclear bomb.
Taepodong-2: Three-stage rocket with potential range of more than 4,100 miles, putting Alaska within striking distance. First two stages are liquid-fueled, while the third is believed to be solid-fueled. Similar to Iran’s Safir-Omid space launch vehicle, the rocket suggests extensive cooperation between the two nations. U.S. and South Korean officials say the North launched a Taepodong-2 rocket in April but it landed in the ocean. South Korean officials said the rocket’s second stage splashed down about 1,900 miles from its launch pad. That is far better than a 2006 launch of a missile that fizzled 42 seconds after lift-off.
Under development. Potential range of about 5,000 miles, putting the U.S. west coast, Hawaii, Australia and eastern Europe within striking distance. North Korea says this, and all Taepdong missiles, are launch vehicles for satellites, though satellite and missile technologies are considered interchangeable.
Sejjil-2, an upgraded version of the Sejil-1 "Baked Clay", is a two stage solid propellant missile. It is believed to have a liquid-fuel first stage and a solid-fuel second stage, which allows it to have a range of 1,500 km.
Sejjil-2 is a land mobile system which utilizes GPS capability to define its launch position on the earth. It can be prepared for launch in a matter of minutes. It is designed to replace the Shahab-3B, 3C and Shahab-3A series liquid propellant missile which takes hours to prepare for launch. The new missile utilizes composite solid-propellant fuel and unlike the Shahab-3 medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM), which is launched only vertically, the Sejjil-2 could be launched at a variable angle. Improvements include better navigation system, better targeting system, more payload, longer range, faster lift-off, longer storage time, quicker launch, and lower detection possibility.
Ghadr-110 systems heritage clearly has a link to the Pakistani Shaheen-II class system. The Shaheen-II is evidently a Pakistani version of the Chinese M-18, which was originally shown at the 1987 Beijing air show as a two-stage missile with 1000 kms range carrying a 400-500 kilogram payload. This M-18 missile had the longest range of any of the current M-series missiles. The full heritage goes back to not merely China ’s M-18, DF-21 that in turn came from Republic of South Africa ’s RSA-2, RSA-3 strategic boosters SLV’s which Israel also benefited from.
Agni-I (around 700 km within 9 minutes and 36 seconds), is a rail-mobile, single stage version of the Agni-II missile. The original Agni-TD was an amalgam of the Prithvi-I and the SLV-3 booster.
Agni-1P will have relatively modern technologies which were developed for the Agni-4 and Agni-5 missiles. It will replace the Russian 60s-era technologies that powered the Prithvi and the early Agni-1 missiles. India had first built the relatively primitive, liquid fuelled, single-stage Prithvi missile that could (use strapdown inertial reference systems for navigation) dump a nuclear bomb on a target 150-250 kilometres away.
Agni-1P will be a two-stage, solid propellant missile. Both stages will have composite rocket motors, guidance systems with electro-mechanical actuators, and inertial navigation systems based on Israeli advanced ring-laser gyroscopes. By combining several avionics packages into one, the designers improved reliability and saved space and weight by reducing cabling and harnesses.
The naval variant of surface-to-surface missile is Dhanush which has undergone multiple testing since 2012. Dhanush, with a liquid propellant, is a short-range, anti-ship weapon, designed to destroy both sea and shore-based targets. It is 8.53 m long, 1 m in diameter, launch weight 5,600 kg and can carry nuclear, high explosive, submunitions, Fuel-Air Explosive (FAE) or chemical weapons over a range of 250-400 km. It entered service in 2010.
Agni-IV (over 3,000 km to atleast 4,000 km), earlier known as Agni IIA Prime. The 20 m long missile is lighter (carbon composite motor casing) in weight, has a two-stage solid propulsion system and the payload has a re-entry heat shield. Its equipped with state of the art Avionics, 5th-generation on board computer and distributed architecture. The missile is equipped with latest features to correct and guide it for in-flight disturbances. The most accurate Ring Laser Gyro based highly advanced Inertial Navigation System (RINS) and supported by highly reliable redundant Micro Navigation System (MINGS), ensured the vehicle reach the target within two digit accuracy. It’s re-entry heat shield, capable of withstanding high temperatures that may reach as high as 4000 degree centigrade and above during reentry of missile in earth’s atmosphere, makes sure that the inside temperature remain less than 50 degree centigrade. Agni-IV had been launched successfully 5 times earlier in 2011, 2012, twice in 2014 and once in 2015.
Agni-VI (it replaced Agni-II), a road mobile, containerized strategic missile with a range of 6,000 km that would be capable of carrying between 4 to 6 independently targeted warheads, according to unnamed DRDO sources. The number of warheads carried by the 20m long, 2m diameter and 65-70 ton missile would depend on the types of warheads deployed.
The Indian BMD programme is structured as a two-tiered system with Pradyumna or Prithvi-II Air Defence (PAD) for long-range interception of enemy missile at altitudes of more than 50 kilometres above the earth and Ashvin Advanced Air Defence (AAD) for low altitude interception of 20-40 kilometres. The endo-atmospheric interception was carried out at an altitude of 15 km.
- The Ashvin Advanced Air Defence (AAD) system is a single-stage, solid-fuel missile ABM designed to intercept incoming endo-atmospheric ballistic missiles at an altitude of 30 km.
- The Pradyumna or Prithvi-II ballistic missile (liquid-fueled first stage) was modified successfully to mimic the trajectory of M-11 missiles with a range of 1,500 km. This is certainly not an ideal system, but it is both available and locally made.
Phase 2 interceptors will be hypersonic with speeds of Mach 6 to 7. Missiles will have lesser time to intercept. Guidance systems have to be far more energetic and capable of quicker response. These interceptors would be capable of intercepting missiles that have ranges greater than 5,000 km, which follow a distinctly different trajectory than a missile with a range of 2,000 km or less. US's THAAD missiles can intercept ballistic missiles over 200 km away and track targets at ranges in excess of 1,000 km. The US continental system is estimated to have cost about $100 billion from 2002 till date.
AD-2 missile stands 7.5 metres tall, weighs around 1.3 tonnes and has a diameter of less than 0.5 metres. It's terminal-guidance sensor will operate in the ultra-violet bandwidth to give better solar radiation rejection. The AAD’s flight trajectory is shaped through aerodynamic control out to an altitude of 35km and a distance of 200km when used for intercepting re-entry vehicles flying at 9km/second. It is able to sustain up to 30 G, thereby making it unstable at an altitude of 35km."
Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles
It differs from the Israeli system as it employs Indian Transmit Receive modules, signal processing, computers and power supplies. It is also more powerful than the base Green Pine system and was developed to meet India's specific BMD needs. Its current range is around 600 - 800 kms. It will be a part of India's ballistic missile program and is being developed to increase its range to 1,200 kms. First testing of this radar was in March 2009.
It has the capability to be integrated with AWACS and ground air defence environment and functions as a command and control centre. The system could be termed as static AWACS. Off course it comes with some vulnerabilities and limitations, like weather, wind speeds, lightning & thunder, launch & recovery periods are vulnerabilities. Its virtues also make it a prime target for enemy therefore it needs to be protected by exclusive air defence weapons.
Israel now has three Arrow batteries in service. The U.S. has also provided Israel with a mobile X-band radar that enables it to detect incoming ballistic missiles farther away. An Arrow battery has 4-8 launchers and each launcher carries six missiles in containers. Arrow 3 weighs about half as much as Arrow 2 and costs about a third less.
Russia undertook a large-scale modernization of the Topol family in the 1990s and adopted the Topol-M silos (NATO reporting name: SS-27) in 2000, followed by the mobile Topol-M2 several years ago. It is the new Topol and the newly adopted RS-24 Yars that will be gradually replacing the decommissioned, first-generation, solid-fuel missiles. The Strategic Missile Forces were expected to be fully converted to lightweight, solid-fuel missile complexes. However, lightweight missiles have not been able to become a full-fledged replacement for liquid-propellant giants. Russia is not planning to abandon its solid-fuel missiles either. Solid-fuel missiles are the best match for mobile complexes. This means that Russia will continue developing a replacement for both types of its active-duty missiles.
At the same time, the United States is planning to deploy 900 ballistic missile interceptors worldwide by 2015. The United States withdrew from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty in 2001 and is no longer limited by any restrictions on building up the quantity and quality of such means. According to Karakaev, it is possible that America could deploy anti-missile defenses in space.
The development of the Topol-M missile began in the late 1980s as an evolutionary upgrade of the RS-12M Topol (SS-25 'Sickle'). Topol-M is a cold-launched, three-stage, solid-propellant, silo-based or road-mobile intercontinental ballistic missile. As a solid propellant design, the missile can be maintained on alert for prolonged periods of time and can launch within minutes of being given the order. It counterpart is the American LGM-30 Minuteman III missile (ICBM) system, and is similar in terms of range and payload but heavier.
One of the Topol-M's most notable features is its short engine burn time following take-off, intended to minimize satellite detection of launches and thereby complicate both early warning and interception by missile defense systems during boost phase. The missile also has a relatively flat ballistic trajectory, complicating defense acquisition and interception. It is claimed to be capable of making evasive manoeuvres to avoid a kill by terminal phase interceptors, and carries targeting countermeasures and decoys. The warhead changed course after separating from the launcher, making it difficult to predict a re-entry trajectory.
Very few ballistic missiles have shorter burn times during launch than others, minimizing the window for satellite detection. But all modern ballistic weapons systems shed layers of outer foil upon re-entry, which can confuse the heck out of ground tracking radar.
They are three types: silo-based "Topol-M", silo-based "Yars", and ground-mobile "Yars". The Topol-M may be deployed either inside a reinforced missile silo, which is reported to be able to withstand a direct nuclear hit or from an APU 15U168 launcher mounted on the MZKT-79221 "Universal" 16-wheeled transporter-erector-launcher. It is shielded against radiation, EMP, nuclear explosions at distances over 500 meters, and is designed to survive a hit from any laser technology.
“Since the potential of solid-fuel ICBMs could become insufficient for overcoming the American missile defense system going forward, a heavy liquid-propellant ICBM is needed to perform this task. Such an ICBM will allow the creation of a non-nuclear, high-precision, strategic weapon with a practically global range, unless the United States abandons its program,”
The implications of its canister-launch system is a potential game changer. It is the second canisterised trial of the 17-metre long and weighing over 50 ton missile. (The previous lunch was on 2015.) The steel container is made of maraging steel. The high speed on-board computer and fault tolerant software along with robust and reliable bus guided the missile. The very high accuracy Ring Laser Gyro based Inertial Navigation System (RINS) and the most modern and accurate Micro Navigation System (MINS) had ensured the missile reached the target point within few meters of accuracy. It also has advantages of higher reliability, longer shelf life, less maintenance and enhanced mobility. Although the total cost of the Agni-5 programme remains a secret; Agni-5 has been estimated to currently cost Rs 100 crore per piece, making it the world’s most cost-effective ICBM.
Agni 5 missile range has been increased from 1,000 kilometres to 2,500 kilometres. A major factor towards greater range would be the weight reduction in the 50-tonne Agni-5, as older, heavier sub-systems are replaced by lighter, more reliable ones, including many made with lightweight composite materials. Due to U.S. sanction many sub-sytems were denied and the Govt. had to set-up plants for manufacturing raw materials and production of solid rocket motors, the navigation systems, re-entry vehicle structures and electro-mechanical actuators etc.
Currently, the Agni-5 has a metallic first stage, made of “maraging steel”, while the second and third stages are entirely built from lightweight composites, which were first tested in the Agni-4 on 15 Nov 2011. Stage-1 components like high-temperature rocket motor nozzles are already being made of composites. A major development is the replacement of hydraulic actuators for fin control actuation (for navigation and guidance), in the Agni-5’s giant first stage, with the state-of-the-art, electro-mechanical actuators (designed in Karnataka-based Servo-controls) that already equip Stage-2 and Stage-3. Gradually, the Agni-5 could become an all-composite missile that is significantly lighter than at present. The entry of India into the Missile Technology Control Regime will also help India to further strengthen its indigenous missile programme. (Moving from hydraulic to electro-mechanical actuators not only saves weight due to lightweight components, but also eliminates problems like oil storage and leakage, and the need for an accumulator. In addition, electro-mechanical actuators are more reliable and easy to maintain.)
The Agni-5 is planned to enter service with the Strategic Forces Command (SFC) as the backbone of India’s China-specific nuclear deterrent. Strategic forces command plans to test Agni-V in a war-like situation to gauge the performance of the missile system in real conditions. DRDO will be training for next 3 trials of Agni-V which to be done by Strategic forces command before it is cleared for induction. Manufacturing the Agni-4 and Agni-5 at full-scale production rates will include more than 200 private sector industries, many of which have played roles in developing the missiles. The DRDO itself manufactures key components, like rocket motors; but even for those, private firms build components like casings and nozzles. As they gain experience, a band of low profile, high-tech private firms, like Sigma Micro Systems, VEM Technologies, and Resin Allied and Products (RAP) are emerging as players in the missile field.
Agni 5 missile is three-stage solid fueled missile and is configured to carry up to 10 MIRVs. The launch starts with the “boost phase”, when the missile is propelled into space. A powerful gas generation system in the canister rapidly builds up 300 tonnes of pressure, popping the missile out, like a bullet. In less than half a second, when the missile is 10-15 metres above the canister, the first stage ignites, accelerating the missile upwards. Within 30 seconds, it goes supersonic and, within 90 seconds, when the first stage burns out, the Agni-5 is hurtling upwards at one-and-a-half kilometres each second. With the “boost phase” over, the missile enters its “ballistic phase”. 10 minutes after launch, it reaches the top of its parabolic path, about 580 kilometres above earth. Then gravity begins pulling it down towards the impact point. Deep in space here, with no atmosphere to allow aerodynamic steering with fins, course correction is done with small “side-thruster rockets”, to correct any errors that crept in during the launch. By the time the payload reaches the upper edge of the atmosphere, it is hurtling downwards at about 5-6 kilometres per second. This is the most technologically challenging part of the launch --- the re-entry stage.
Agni 5 has the capability to launch satellites but with certain modifications. Certain modification means the early entry stage, because for launching satellites you don't have to re-enter the atmosphere as it only has to go in the higher atmosphere (for which the upper stages will be modified for releasing the satellites). The atmospheric air rubbing the skin of the missile during the re-entry phase raises the temperature to beyond 4,000 degree Celsius. However, the indigenously designed and developed, thick block of carbon-carbon composite heat-shield (compressing it with pressures of up to 1,000 atmospheres) continues to burn sacrificially protecting the payload, maintaining the inside temperature below 50 degree Celsius.
Now after completing Prithvi, Agni, tactical missile like Akash and even Agni-1 and Agni-2, major technology components which are required for building missile today are now indigenously produced. When scientists started working on Agni-3 in 2000 and Agni-4 in 2005, it took them far shorter time. The Agni missile series has tested a variety of indigenous technologies such as rocket motor casings, on board inertial navigation systems with GPS, homing guidance, radio frequency seeks and ring laser gyros along with the light weight and robust composite material. The development cycle (drawing board to production) of missiles has also been reduced to 5-6 years now from the 10-12 years ago. This substantially cuts down costs and shows the confidence of the Defence scientists and the industry.
There are speculations by China that the Agni-5 actually is an (India's sole) ICBM that capable of striking targets at larger ranges. There are also speculation that Agni-6 SLBM is in development that will also be capable of carrying multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles (MIRVs), and even manoeuvrable re-entry vehicles (MARVs); providing higher survivability against enemy anti-ballistic missile systems.
China's current DF-3 (originally DF-1, it was renamed in 1964) is based on the first stage of the limited DF-4 (CSS-3) ICBM. It is China's first credible intermediate-range ballistic missile design, developed during the 1960s to provide a capability to attack US basing in the First Island Chain. The original DF-3 was a liquid propellant ICBM cancelled in 1963.
The improved DF-3A with greater range and increased accuracy was developed in the 1980s and remains the only variant still serving in the PLA. The DF-3 employs a towed launcher conferring a measure of mobility, but likely lacks a significant off-road capability. While the US DoD still credits the PLA with an operational DF-3A capability of 5-10 launchers and 15-20 missiles, the system is arguably more significant for having been exported to Saudi Arabia in a conventionally armed version.
The now retired DF-2A was the first intermediate-range ballistic missile design produced by China.
Rockets & Artillery
Artillery is a class of weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range of normal rifles and machine-guns. It is important part of any army or armed force as artillery not only supports ground troops but also helps in destroying enemy strongholds.
Soviet Artillery doctrine considered use of artillery as a ‘fighting arm’ rather than as a ‘support arm’. The phrase ‘God of War’ used to describe the role of artillery as a battle winning arm in modern battlefield originated in former Soviet Union.
They currently come in 2 versions. This one is specifically designed to counter medium range enemy weapon systems out to a range of 24 kms, while the TPQ-37 can locate longer-range systems, and even surface launched missiles, out to 50 kms. Indian Air Force has 12 TPQ-37 Firefinder WLRs.
In what appears to be a genuine case of historic irony, the MO-120 is used by the successor states that replaced the fabled Gunpowder Empires: Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, and India. It deserves mention how each of these countries have enormous requirements for artillery and other crew-served weapons. It’s unknown how many MO-120’s are used by the Indian Army, but the OFB still considers it part of its product line.
It has a sturdy split trail two wheeled carriage and a gun shield is fitted for crew protection. The M-46 has a 58 calibres long 130mm ordnance that is fitted with a pepper-pot muzzle brake. Normally a crew of 8 is used to operate the weapon. The M-46 fires its own range of 130 mm ammunition out to 27.2 km. This allows it to out-range virtually early Cold War artillery including the US M59 Long Tom. It is however unable to match the latest lighter 155mm L/52 artillery, even with base bleed rounds. The maximum rate of fire is 5 to 6 rpm, although several sources claim 8 to 10 rpm.
India is one of the largest users of 130 mm artillery in the world and it was agreed that if the option for further upgrades is implemented, Soltam will cooperate with local Indian industry in the upgrades and transfer know-how for the building of gun-tubes there. This ‘up-gunning’ move will increase the gun’s range and ability to deliver heavier explosives.
Soltam offers an upgrade package for the 130mm M-46 called the 155mm 45 cal M-46S towed gun in 2000. The upgrade is provided to the Indian Army into 155 mm guns similar to the ones used by the Israel Defense Forces. This replaces the 130mm ordnance with a 155mm gun, which may be either a L/39 or L/45 one. The ordnance is similar as used on the M839 and M845 howitzers and results in increased range and fire-power. The changes to the pieces involve the replacing of the gun tubes and the firing mechanisms. The upgraded guns will have six-meter tubes and ranges of up to 39 kilometres. These upgrade is in use with India which designates the system Mephisto.
The company is currently modernizing the Indian 130mm M46 artillery systems for $47.5 million, converting them to the M46S version, the conversion utilize the existing carriage and recoil system of 180 Russian original 130mm gun, fitted with the 155/45 cal tubes, which use standard 155mm artillery ammunition including ERFB/BB projectiles with charge 11 which extend the firing range up from 27.2 up to 39 km. A decision on an option for the upgrading of an additional 220-250 artillery pieces will be made by Indian officials later. Three entities are also competing for a Rs 720-crore order to upgrade the Army’s vintage 130mm M-46 artillery guns to the 155mm standard.
The M-46 has been copied and produced under license in China as the Type 59 which includes some changes. The Type 59-I incorporates some parts taken from the Type 60 field gun, mainly in the carriage. The Type 59-I has the same 58 caliber 130mm ordnance, which is fitted with a double baffle muzzle brake in the Chinese version.
Smerch-M MBRLs has replaced the 150 km Prithvi-1 (Army version SS-150).
"India's Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) signed a MoU for a joint venture with Rosoboronexport and Splav SPA to manufacture 5 versions of Smerch Rockets based on the technology received from Russia". This weapon was successfully tried and tested to be able to hit 90 kms in the Kargil war to evict the Pakistanis. However, Russia backed out from an agreement with India to provide any technology transfer for rockets used in the Smerch multiple-launch rocket systems (MLRS).
Shtil-2 (SS-N-12) SAM system is a ship-based Smerch which are fitted on Indian (Talwar & Delhi class), Chinese & Russian destroyers with 3S90M "Smerch" (SA-N-12 'Grizzly') missiles. This was an improved missile, with the designator 9M317, which was developed specifically for the Buk-2M (SA-17) and Shtil-1 (SA-N-7B or SA-N-12) systems. The range of the system is estimated at up to 50km and is capable following and hitting targets flying at speeds up to Mach 4.
There are similarities between the Buk-M1 (SA-11 'Gadfly') and Buk-2M (SA-17 'Grizzly') missiles and the US RIM-66 Standard, and the Buk-2M missile also bears a resemblance to the Vympel NPO R-37 air-to-air missile.
SA-19/SA-N-11 development further into combined short to medium range surface-to-air missile and anti-aircraft artillery weapon system, Pantsir-S1 that and represents the latest air defence technology by using phased-array radars for both target acquisition and tracking.
China's WM-120 rocket system is an upgrade of the older A100 rockets system which is in turn very similar to the Russian BM 9A52 Smerch in rocket diameter, range, rate of fire and overall appearance. A100 fires unguided 300 mm rockets with a minimum range of 40 to 50 km and a maximum range of 85 to 120 km. These are fitted with a High-Explosive Anti-Tank (HEAT) warhead. Rocket accuracy is enhanced as the platform is fitted with a Global Positioning System (GPS) which also reduces target response times. A complete system takes 20 minutes to be reloaded with 10 new rockets.
Russia's BM-30 Smerch rocket system entered service in the late 1980s, and was seen as the Russian answer to the U.S. MLRS. Because of the success of the GPS version of the U.S. MLRS rocket the smaller, truck mounted MLRS (HIMARS) rocket launcher system has become more popular. This enables one HIMARS vehicle to provide support over a frontage of 170 kilometers, or, in places like Afghanistan, where the fighting can be anywhere, an area of over 20,000 square kilometers. This is a huge footprint for a single weapon (an individual HIMARS vehicle), and fundamentally changes the way you deploy artillery in combat.
A single Pinaka regiment can obliterate a target 37.5 kilometers away by pouring down 72 rockets onto it in just 44 seconds. It has been inducted in the Indian Army with 2 variants of warheads currently under production. Each rocket delivers 100 kilograms of high explosive onto the target. ADM warhead is capable of neutralizing an area of more than 10,000 square meters. The Pinaka rocket’s “pre-formed fragmented” (PF) warhead breaks into 21,000 high-density, tungsten alloy spears when it strikes its target, tearing through anything in the area. Its success has been well documented during Kargil conflict and has earned the confidence of our Indian armed forces. It was the first Indian prototype weapon to be used in an actual combat. The volume and precision of firepower that a Pinaka regiment brings down would stun defenders and leave attacking forces with an easy task.
A state-of-the-art system has better electronics than even Russian frontline MBRLs. It was developed when Russia backed out from an agreement with India to provide the technology transfer for rockets used in the Smerch multiple-launch rocket systems (MLRS) that can hit targets upto 90 kms. The DRDO’s choice of L&T and Tata Power as industrial partners in the Pinaka project ensured that a quality design was enhanced by skilled manufacture. Ordnance Factory Chanda, near Nagpur, builds the Pinaka rockets and warheads. Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) builds the Tatra high mobility vehicles on which the system is mounted, as well as its mobile logistics systems. Tata Power SED had delivered one regiment of Pinaka Launcher and Command Post in the period of 2006 – 2010 and has receive another order for the same. The order is worth over Rs 200 crore includes supply of 20 Launchers and 8 command posts. 10 more contracts has been cleared by the Government. The Pinaka system is 92% local, supports 43 Indian industries.
Unfortunately, some of them could not reach the full distance and some of the rockets had burst in the launcher itself. Hence, IMI Systems (formerly Israel Military Industries) will resume supplying TCS modules for Pinaka-1 MBRL rockets since the DRDO-replicated clone of the TCS modules has failed.
The guided Pinaka Mk II has a range of 60-65 km, compared to 37.5-40 of Mk I, which had an error probability of one meter with the help of GPS. GPS signals can be distorted by the operator or jammed by an enemy. The Pinaka Mk II rocket has pre-frag, incendiary, practice and three types of submunition warheads. An ideal weapon for striking terrorist camps across the Line of Control (LoC) with pinpoint accuracy, eliminating the need to risk soldiers crossing the border on “surgical strikes”.
The L118 first entered service with the British Army in 1975 and was soon snapped up by allied countries, including a modified variant for the US Army. Its the workhorse for the Indian Army who has several hundred of these.
A 105mm artillery shell or a 120mm mortar shell, is way less expensive than a Small Diameter Bomb
The tender for modernising the Bofors FH-77B, involves overhauling the gun, fitting a state-of-the-art sighting system, and upgrading the barrels from 39 calibre to 52 calibre. The barrel upgrade will allow the guns to fire heavier ammunition, inflicting heavier damage on targets.
Undeterred by Bofors’ withdrawal, the MoD-owned Ordnance Factories Board (OFB) and the Tata group have stepped forward and bid for the Bofors upgrade programme. Neither has ever developed an artillery gun earlier. The OFB, however, has the technical drawings of the Bofors FH-77B gun, which were handed over by Bofors when India signed the contract in the mid-1980s.
For BAE Systems, the decision not to bid was a difficult one. It had set up a JV with MDS --- with BAE Systems holding a 26% stake, the maximum permissible --- primarily to build artillery systems in India. Last year the JV had written to the MoD offering a sweetener: if it won artillery deals like the Bofors upgrade, it would give the influential Indian defence production establishment a share of the work.
The OFB would be given the work of manufacturing the gun barrels; public sector Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) could make the sighting systems; while the gun trails and gun carriages (on which the guns rest, fire and move) would be built in the new BAE-MDS factory in Faridabad.
Despite all this, BAE Systems has not bid. Industry sources say BAE is confident that the OFB and the Tatas will prove technically unable to upgrade the Bofors guns.
Three Dhanush guns were fired in high-altitude range in Leh. Six guns were fired at Pokhran in May 2017 and July 2017. Defects in the muzzle brake have been found in two guns. Dhanush had suffered a temporary setback in August 2013 when the barrel of the fourth prototype burst during tests in Pokhran, Rajasthan. Investigations revealed that the reason was not due to any problems with the quality of the barrel but due to the defective ammunition that was fired. The shell used for that test was 12 years old.
Light-Weight 155mm M777 "Triple Seven", formerly known as the Advanced Towed Cannon System, is a Ultra-lightweight Field Howitzer. It is a British design and, at 4 tons, is the lightest 155mm towed howitzer ever fielded. The acquisition for 145 M777-A2 ultra-light howitzers from the U.S.-arm of BAE Systems has also been initiated for “sword arm” formation. The order will require the arsenal to manufacture other parts to the howitzer system, such as breech blocks, muzzle brakes, and breech rings. Each of the sub-parts to the order will require extremely tight machining tolerances that will be measured in thousandths of an inch. This is the first time that guns are being purchased for the Indian Army since bofors in 1987. While 25 guns will come in a fly-away condition, the rest 120 will be assembled in India by the BAE Systems in partnership with Mahindra Defence. The basic gun is the same as the howitzers that the U.S. military uses. However, Indian version has the battle-proven fire-control system that Canada uses on their howitzers. Core components like titanium forgings and fabrications of the M777, which make the M777 light, is being currently manufactured in the company’s UK facility produces. Significantly, the gun barrel of the gun cannot be made in India due to the Berry Amendment, a U.S. Congressional Act.
The 155mm 52 calibre Advanced Towed Artillery Gun System (ATAGS) is a second version of Dhanush (the indianised ver. of the imported Bofors gun). It is going to be an upgraded version from the current 155x45mm caliber to 155x52mm caliber. ATAGS exceptional range stems from its larger chamber – 25 litres, compared to 23 litres in similar guns. This allows the gun to be fired with more explosive, propelling the warhead further and to absorb the higher “shock of discharge.
The aim is to meet the army’s need for more than 2,000 towed artillery pieces, generating indigenous manufacture for over Rs 30,000 crore. Development of the ATAGS system has been divided into 9 “work packages”, with each package competitively tendered within India. Some of the salient features are:
With its hydro-pneumatic suspension system, the AH-4 can be deployed in a firing position within three minutes and made ready to be moved in two minutes. The gun’s full crew consists of seven artillerymen. The maximum rate of fire is four rounds per minute. The gun’s maximum range is 40 kilometers, although a 25-kilometer effective range appears more likely.
India has signed a deal for 100 modified K-9 self-propelled howitzers for over USD750 million (Rs 4,366 crore) with the option for an additional 50 K-9s. Deliveries will be completed within 3 years. The overall number of K-9 Vajra required by the Indian Army will be around 250. This is based on the creation of at least three K-9 Vajra regiments for each of the army’s three armored divisions, as well as another three regiments for the independent armored brigades within the army’s three strike corps. However, the SPH's supplementary K-10 munitions supply vehicle, built on the K-9 platform, is not part of the tender.
In 2017, L&T received an order from the MoD for 100 high-tech howitzers. The howitzers will be mounted and integrated into a tank. They can move at 72 km per hour, and they can also go on sand. Their shelling range is 43 km. The 47-tonne K-9 SPHs would be built at L&T's Talegaon plant near Pune in western India as part of a joint venture with Samsung; despite the K-9 Vajra falling under the “Buy Global” procurement category, which allows over-the-counter sales of military hardware. L&T sources said the SPHs would include 50% indigenous content. This would involve fabricating the K-9's hull and turret structure and locally developing 14 sub-systems such as the fire control and communication systems.
Fitted with an automatic fire-control system, the artillery has a maximum rate of fire of 6 rounds per minute and is capable of multiple-round simultaneous-impact firing various projectiles with strike ranges of between 18 and 40 km, the K-9 has an operational range of 450 km, while its hydro-pneumatic tracked suspension and high ground clearance ensure good mobility across rough terrain. Together with the K10 Ammunition Re-supply Vehicle, the system is recognized for its functionality and unrivaled performance.
Powered by a German-designed MTU MT881 Ka 500 V8 water-cooled 1,000 hp diesel engine coupled and driven by a fully automatic US-origin Allison transmission system, the K-9 is operated by a crew of five. The K9's hydro-suspension and high ground clearance ensure mobility across varied terrain. Constructed of all-welded steel armour and capable of withstanding 14.5 mm armour-piercing shells and 152 mm rounds, the K9's design incorporates an automatic fire control and loading system, a modular azimuth position system, and a powered gun elevation and turret traverse system.
L & T will procure (from Russia’s JSC V. A. Degtyarev Plant) and install the NSV 12.7mm heavy machine guns on the K-10s, and will also equip all vehicles with the BEL-supplied FOG-based autonomous land navigation system, IRDE-developed driver uncooled thermal imagers, and STARS-V Mk.3 radios for communicating with the IA’s DRDO-developed ‘Shakti’ artillery fire-assault direction system.
The K9 thunder is fitted with NBC protection system. During the production phase of the Indian tracked artillery program, the joint offering would have over 50% indigenous content including components like fire control system, communication system, NBC & AC, APU, life support system, etc which have already been used in India. This phase will also include significant localization of hull /turret structure and major subsystems.
The latest K-9 deal comes after a merger and acquisition agreement over Samsung Techwin. Samsung Group agreed to sell a 32.4% stake in Samsung Techwin for $765 million to Hanwha Corp., a defense business arm of Hanwha Group. Hanwha also gained managing rights over Samsung Thales, an electronics weapon maker jointly funded by the French Thales Group as Techwin owns a 50% stake in Samsung Thales.
This artillery system is fitted with a complete T6 T-SPH turret, developed by Denel Land Systems based in South Africa. It is armed with a 155-mm / L52 howitzer, similar to that of the G6-52. The turret was mated on Arjun Mk.1's hull.
Vehicle has a fully automatic ammunition loading system. Maximum range of fire is 41 km with rocket assisted projectile and 52 km with Denel V-LAP rocket assisted projectile. This system is capable of firing standard NATO 155-mm ammunition. Maximum rate of fire is 8 rounds per minute. Sustained rate is 2 rounds per minute. The Bhim is capable of firing 3 rounds burst in 15 seconds. It is also capable of multiple-launch simultaneous impact firing. Up to 6 rounds are launched in different trajectories and hit located 25 km away simultaneously.
Total onboard ammunition capacity is about 40 - 50 rounds. 20 of these rounds are stored in the autoloader. Turret has ammunition loading hatches on both sides. A conveyor belt may be extended for ground ammunition loading and direct feeding of the gun.
Secondary armament of the Bhim howitzer consists of a single 7.62-mm machine gun.
Vehicle is fitted with modern fire control system. It has a fire control computer for automatic gun laying and GPS navigation system. The Bhim artillery system has a crew of four, however it's high level of automation allows to reduce the crew to two men in a fully automatic mode. It consists of commander, gunner, loader and driver.
Unfortunately, in 2005, the South African firm Dennel got involved in a bribery scam and was blacklisted from India, thus ended its participation in the project. The only vendor left in the fray was the K-9 South Korean Firm. Because of the single vendor situation whole contract was scrapped.
Anti-Aircraft SAM Defense System
MR-SAM or LR-SAM is not to physically destroy the aircraft, but to force the aircraft to either abort the mission, or drop down to a far lower altitude where it will be vulnerable to quick-reaction SAM.
The Army uses Russian OSA-AK, Kvadrat, Shilka and Tunguska air-defense systems. India had made attempts to upgrade its badly outdated anti-aircraft and missile defenses, which still rely on antiquated Soviet era OSA-AKM [SA-8 Gecko] and ZRK-BD Strela-10M [SA-13 Gopher] SAM systems.
- Digital beam forming
- Design compliant with ecological constraints (low power consumption, compliance with RoHS standards and related European directives)
- TBM detection and tracking up to 1000 km
- TBM tracking elevation coverage up to 85°
- Chosen and planned maintenance with limited team
HQ-7 (FM-90) Naval is a naval version which can be mounted on frigates or destroyers. A auto-loading launcher has a bank of 8 missiles. This naval SAM can intercept sea-skimming anti-ship missiles. The system is capable of processing up to 30 targets, and tracking 12 targets simultaneously.
The missile is 3 m long and weight 84.5 kg. It has a solid fuel rocket motor. It gives the missile a maximum speed of 900 m/s and a range of 15 km. It can engage helicopters, aircraft, cruise missiles, air-to-ground missiles and anti-radiation missiles at a range of up to 15 km. Minimum range of fire is 700 m. Maximum altitude is 6000 m. Missile has a 15 kg High-Explosive Fragmentation (HE-FRAG) warhead with contact and proximity fuses. It is claimed that a hit probability with a single shot is more than 85%.
It is fitted with an S-band Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) antenna. It can detect up to 48 targets and track up to 24 targets simultaneously. Maximum detection range is 25 km. Maximum tracking range is 20 km.
Upgraded Tor M2-U SR-SAM air-defense systems (ADMS) (NATO name: SA-15 Gauntlet) comprises the 9A331 combat vehicle and the 9M331 SAM. In the 1990s, the PRC purchased dozens of Tor-M1 missile systems at high cost. The HQ-17 is a Chinese development of the Tor-M1 system with multiple improvements (like incorporating datalink).
At the front of the turret is the phased-array pulse-Doppler 25 km range K-band tracking radar, the beams of which are also electronically steered. A Tor M2E can engage four targets simultaneously, having up to eight missiles airborne. It can intercept drones and missiles at ranges of 1.5 km to 7 km maximum with precision guided weapons intercepted at a minimum distance of 50 meters and maximum range of 6 kms.
Based on the Thales SR3D, the GS100 is a mobile, modular, multi-functional radar dedicated to tracking complex target maneuvers at low altitude. Thales will supply six of the 19 Ground Smarter (GS100) low level transportable radars (LLTR) that the IAF has ordered from France, with the other 13 to be assembled in BEL's facility near Delhi in Ghaziabad. It offers operational performance out to 180 km.
India may buy the CONTROLMaster around 60 surveillance radar which is optimized for mobile air defense operation with a search-on-the-move capability and for engagement of conventional and asymmetric threats in harsh environments, clutter and intense jamming conditions and simultaneous multiple engagements.
Ashwin is a transportable, AESA-based, low-level, gap-filler radar, used in conjunction with the SR-SAM, against specific requirement along the border, e.g. automatic detection and tracking of helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft, UAVs and RPVs. It will replace the Thales Ground Smarter GS100 (SR3D).
Flycatcher is a self-contained, all weather unit; that can track multiple aerial targets and provide data for the battery of L70 guns under its control.
HQ-9 SAM on Type 52D destroyer can take down a PJ-10 BrahMos SSM but FL-3000N / HHQ-10 cannot.
India has been looking for a 15 km short-range SAM to complete, low-med-high SAM coverage. India had ordered the first Barak system for INS Viraat in the late-1990s to counter Pakistan's acquisition of sea-skimming Exocet and Harpoon missiles. DRDO's abject failure to develop the indigenous Trishul AMD system paved the way for $300 million worth Barak orders after the 1999 Kargil conflict. With the CBI deciding to close the infamous seven-year-old Barak kickbacks case for lack of evidence, the defence ministry has cleared the long-pending “critical” naval procurement of an additional 262 Israeli Barak-I missiles for Rs.880 crore. MoD had refused to blacklist Israeli Aerospace Industries (IAI) and Rafael on the ground that it would be "counter-productive" to national security.
The ELM-2221 STGR radar system provides 360 degree coverage and the missiles can take down an incoming missile as close as 500 meters away from the ship. The missile has a range of ten kilometres, and is also effective against aircraft. That pushes it past the standard ranges of shoulder-launched options with naval counterparts, like the MBDA Mistral/SIMBAD or Saab Boofors’ RBS-70, but short of other small vertical launch options like the RIM-162 Evolved Sea Sparrow. Its closest western competitors on the international market are probably Raytheon’s horizontally-fired Amero-German RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile, and MBDA’s flexible Crotale VT-1/NG.
The 3D CAR, a derivative of the Polish S-band TRS-19 radar, was developed as part of a program between DRDO and Poland's PIT to develop and transfer the technology & rights of the mobile, S-Band 3D radars family. The areas of cooperation were in developing the Planar Array and general architecture. The Indian variant is the 3D CAR, a medium range surveillance radar for Akash at Group level, intended to provide high mobility and comprehensive high and low level coverage. The Polish versions, are the TRS series of S-Band mobile radars such as the TRS-17 and TRS-19.
These replace the original joint development items such as the planar array antenna with new locally developed ones which are more capable than the original design. The original Indian (3D-CAR) and Polish (TRS-17) radars shared the basic architecture and antenna but differed in terms of purpose designed transmitter/receivers, and signal processing equipment.
The radar scans the air space 360 in Azimuth and 30 in elevation upto 18 km height. It can detect sea-surface targets 80 km away, fighter-aircraft 150 km away, and cruise missiles at a distance of 40 km. It can detect fixed-wing aircraft flying at a distance of 200 km at a height of 18 km. Its mounted on a high-mobility modified TATRA heavy truck and supported by a mobile auxiliary power unit. It can be deployed and decamped in 30 minutes. We need this type of radars to be protect offshore oil and natural gas rig production platform against aerial attacks.
Operating in a range of upto 170 kilometres and an altitude of 15 kilometres, the Rohini radar can track multiple targets like fighter jets and missiles travelling at supersonic speeds of over 3,000 kms per hour, viz around Mach 3. The radar employs an array of Electronic Counter Counter Measure (ECCM) features including frequency agility and jammer analysis.
Two REVATHI radars were ordered by the Indian Navy for their P-28 Corvette program. Given that the Indian Navy intends to have up to 4-6 P-28 Corvettes, further orders are likely from the Navy as well.
(Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme)
Akash-1S was to replace the 2K12 Kvadrat SAM air-defence system for providing air defense cover to the mechanized forces. Akash-1S has a new domestic radio frequency seeker which will change the entire dynamics of the missile. IAFs Pechora squadrons are planned to be converted to Akash squadrons
It is a highly-modified & elongated version of the popular SA-6 Gainful / 2K12 Kub (export Kvadrat) anti-aircraft missile using the soviet-era technology along with the DRDO-developed Rajendra-III PESA counter-battery level radar (BLR) on the hull of a T-72M main battle tank. Russia’s NPO Mashinostroyenia helped DRDO overcome the problem with Akash Mk1’s supersonic engine. However, the Indian Army found the Akash Mk1 air defense system reaction time longer and slower during battle manoeuvres; and its radar coverage is also less than 360 degrees.
Its altitude range technically qualifies it to be MR-SAM. However, its lateral range is actually similar to the maximum lateral range of SR-SAM i.e. 20-25 kms. The Akash-1S will replace the existing old SA-6 Gainful MR-SAM systems which were inducted between 1977 and 1979. Akash is a comprehensive missile system that has been hailed as a step towards self-realisation of indigenisation. Akash is 1 of the 5 core missile systems of the integrated guided missile development programme, launched by DRDO in 1984. Indian Army has 2 Akash Mk1 regiments, with 6 firing batteries.
A typical Akash Regiment can provide air defence missile coverage of 2,000 square km. The all-weather, fully-automated Akash missile has a kill probability of 88% for the first and 99% for the second missile on a target, within a specified kill zone and has even intercepted a target with a 0.02 square-metre radar cross-section (a fighter has a 2 square-metre RCS. Akash Mk1’s beam-riding SACLOS-guided missile round has a launch weight of 720kg, length of 5.8 metres, and a diameter of 35cm. It is fuelled by solid propellants. It can carry a conventional warhead of 50 to 60 kg. The Akash missile can fly at Mach 2.5 supersonic speed (ramjet propulsion system), engage upto 25km away and reach an effective ceiling altitude of 18 km. The Akash system is over 96% indigenous and sources its components from 330 Indian industries.
Akash uses an indigenous ramjet technology engine, which runs on solid fuel. “The ramjet technology in our country has been established with Akash,” said Sen. In ramjet technology, the missile takes oxygen from the atmosphere and rams it inside the combustion chamber. Since the missile does not carry oxygen in its tanks, it makes the missile lighter. Hence, it can carry more propellants and thus travel longer distances. Akash is a two-stage missile, with the booster motor in the first and the sustainer motor in the second. The launcher for Akash is a tracked vehicle and each launcher can carry three missiles. Akash is deployed in 4 batteries at a time and each battery has 4 launchers with a total of 12 missiles. The launch platform can swivel 360 degrees. The missile control centre will decide which launcher should fire at the target.
However, Akash Mk1 missile has a range of only 25 kms and is incapable of targeting airborne targets at far away distances. The Akash Mk1 missile has failed to reach the desired 35 km lateral range. Both, the IAF and the Indian Army, have since insisted on a minimum lateral range of 40 km (and preferably 50 km). Both the Army and IAF are of the view that it order to stay technologically relevant for combating future airborne threat scenarios, AESA-based target engagement radars are mandatory. The Army has also specified that such radars perform all search, identification, tracking, and engagement functions, instead of having three different radars for all functions ranging from target detection to tracking to engagement. Also, a series of launch failures and lack of advanced interception technology meant that the Indian air defence system is lagging behind that if their counterparts.
A audit found that the Akash missile systems delivered by BEL were deficient in quality with 30% failure rate, due to poor storage, which posed an “operational risk during hostilities”. The missiles "fell short of the target, had lower than the required velocity, and there was malfunctioning of critical units."
"Originally slated for completion within a 12-year period, the project’s Rs. 5 billion R&D phase had to extended by another eight years due to previously unforeseen technological and operational challenges, especially with regard to its fire-control and missile guidance systems. When the project took off in the late 1980s, the DRDL had proudly claimed that target engagement will be undertaken by the ground-based, active phased-array Rajendra L-band Battery-Level Radar (BLR) and a track-via-missile guidance system for the missile. However, the sheer technological challenges forced the DRDL to abandon this path by the mid-1990s, and the DRDO’s Bangalore-based Electronics R&D establishment (LRDE) instead took up the development of a passive phased-array variant of the Rajendra target engagement radar, whose laboratory version had 4,000 phase shifters, a spectrally pure travelling wave tube (TWT) transmitter (which at that time was imported from THALES Nederland), two-stage super-heterodyne correlation receiver for three channels, a high-speed digital signal processor, real-time management computer, and a radar data processor. The system has advanced battlefield management software, which carries out relative threat computation and pairing of targets and missiles and missile fire-control. Dr R R Panyam has been the Project Director for Akash since 2002."
To nullify India's Akash Mk1 missile, Pakistan has recently inducted its FM-90 air defence missile system, procured from China, while on eastern front, China has deployed HQ-7. In response the Indian Army has started the process of acquiring nearly 2,000 SRSAM from abroad at 70% cost of the Akash Mk1 missile system. The acquirement of the QRSAMs is much awaited by the India, who claims that the current SAM systems of the army are severely under-equipped.
Akash NG (New Generation) will have minor improvements, apart from higher energetic propellants for extended ranger. The system has been conceptualised with solid propulsion, wing-body-tail configuration, electro-mechanical control system, active RF seeker and laser proximity fuze. It will be capable of search, track and fire while engaging 10 targets at ranges up to 50 km with configuration. New reports suggest that project to develop the Akash-NG has been discarded in favour of Barak-8’s shorter range variant (50km) will be used by the Indian Army, for air defence as well anti-PGM capabilities.
Pechora-M which upgraded almost all aspects of the system - the rocket motor, P-15 radar, guidance, warhead, fuse and electronics. There is an added laser/infra-red tracking device to allow launching of missiles without the use of the radar.
It has a shorter effective range and lower engagement altitude than either of its predecessors and also flies slower, but due to its two-stage design it is more effective against more manoeuvrable targets. It is also able to engage lower flying targets than the previous systems, and being more modern it is much more resistant to ECM than the S-75. The 5V24 (V-600) missiles reach around Mach 3 to 3.5 in flight, both stages powered by solid fuel rocket motors.
A Yugoslav Army 250th Air Defense Missile Brigade 3rd battery equipped with S-125 system managed to shoot down an F-117 Nighthawk stealth bomber on March 27, 1999 during the Kosovo War (the only recorded downing of a stealth aircraft). It was also used to shoot down a NATO F-16 fighter on May 2 (its pilot; Lt. Col David Goldfein, the commander of 555th Fighter Squadron, managed to eject and was later rescued by a combat search-and-rescue (CSAR) mission. However, apart from the two isolated successes achieved on two USAF strike aircraft, the Kosovo war demonstrated the obsolescence of these fixed SAM sites and its unreliability as part of an integrated air defence system: dozens of missiles were fired with only two aircraft downed.
A USAF F-16 (serial 87-257) was shot down on January 19, 1991, during Operation Desert Storm. The aircraft was struck by an SA-3 just south of Baghdad. The pilot, Major Jeffrey Scott Tice, ejected safely but became a POW as the ejection took place over Iraq. It was the 8th combat loss and the first daylight raid over Baghdad. Two days before, a B-52G was damaged.
The Army convinced the Indian Defence Ministry there is an urgent requirement for SRSAM, said Army sources, and did not want to wait for the Maitri project conceived four years ago. India and France have not been able to agree on details of the Maitri project, including funding arrangements. The Maitri project was proposed to be jointly developed by India's Defence Research and Development Laboratory and MBDA.
IAF's IIR-guided SpyDer Short-Range Air Defense (SHORAD) SAM and is being procured in limited quantities as an interim solution. The state-of-the-art missile has a strike range of about 15 km in low altitude. The shorter the range, the more difficult it would be for the missile to attack a moving target. The U.S. Javelin and the Israeli Spike had lock-on-before launch systems but the range was only 2.5 km.
The Spyder-SR is the culmination of joint R & D efforts undertaken by RAFAEL and Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI). The Derby is actually a larger Python, with more fuel and a radar controlled guidance system. Both missiles are equipped with lock-on before launch (LOBL) and lock-on after launch (LOAL) modes for faster response time and improved engagement flexibility. Derby will eventually be replaced by the quick-reaction Astra-1 SHORAD version with Ku-band seeker, which is under development. RF-guided SAM will focus on hostile airborne aircraft.
The IAF refers to the Spyder-SR as a low-level quick-reaction missile (LLQRM), while the Army calls it a quick-reaction surface-to-air missile (QR-SAM). It can target can tackle both hostile aircraft & cruise missiles & hence offers more bang-for-the-buck (unlike Akash-2 SAM that can only target aircrafts). Both the IAF and the Army, Israel's Rafale SPYDER will reportedly replace India’s Russian-made OSA-AKM/SA-8 Gecko and ZRK-BD Strela-10M/ SA-13 Gopher SAM systems, and the purchase has decisively shelved the Indian DRDO’s failed Trishul project.
The IAF's current requirement is for multi-functional active phased array radar for early warning of a three-dimensional target and linking this information to a central fire control unit to activate the air defence mechanism. This procurement will be over and above the 18 MRSAM units that India is buying from Israel in a $1 billion deal signed in 2009.
The MRSAM will be capable of all-weather, all-terrain and day-and-night operation with a 3.5 km altitude ceiling. The system will be capable of engaging multiple targets against all types of targets in a network-centric operations environment. Rafael claims to have upgraded new missile with new seeker that employs an advanced solid state software-defined radar which is derived from Tamir interceptor used in Rafael’s Iron Dome System.
This truck-mounted system mixes radar and optical tracking. It is a low-level (from 20 metres through to 9,000 metres altitude) integrated, all-weather air-defence system that makes use of the ground-launched ultra-agile short-range (15km range) 5th generation Python 5 imaging infra-red guided and short to medium-range Derby 4 radar-guided missiles, which complement each other in their target detection, tracking and pursuit profile.
The radar can simultaneously track and engage up to 60 targets at a range beyond 35km (depending on the terrain). The command-and-control unit interfaces with the missile launch vehicles via wireless data-link (for up to as distance of 100km) to enable optimal unit dispersion for effective area coverage, mutual protection and survivability.
In order to create a versatile system adapted for a wider range of threats. A typical SPYDER squadron consists of 1 Mobile Command and Control Unit, plus 4 Mobile Firing Units with with their own built-in power supplies and missile sets of 4-8 missiles.
Starting with the Shafrir series, the Shafrir-1 missile was developed in 1959, followed by the Shafrir-2 in early 1970s.
Subsequently, the missiles were given the western name of "Python" by the parent company for export purposes, starting with the Python-3 in 1978.
Since then, it has been further developed and evolved into the Python-4, Python-5, Derby and also, the SPYDER, an advanced ground-based air-defence system.
Though technically not part of the "Python" family, the missile is basically an enlarged Python-4 with an active-radar seeker. The Python-4 is a 4th generation AAM with all-aspect attack ability, and integration with a helmet-mounted sight (HMS) system.
Its canister launched version should be able to target ballistic missiles range up to 25 kms in azimuth in less than one minute. It's looking for a weapon that delivers a single shot kill probability (SSKP) of at least 70% for a single missile fired, and 85% for a salvo shot involving 2 missiles with RF seekers. The missile also needs to be able to threats moving at speeds ranging from 0 km/h (a hovering helicopter) to 500 m/s at 20 kms on fast jets. It hit the target within 30 seconds. The Army is hoping for systems that deploy missiles that have ECCM capabilities and compatibility with vehicles currently in use. The launchers should be able to operate 24 hours a day, move 50 kmph for 8 hours without refueling (150 kms a day) and have nuclear-biological-chemical protection.
The all-weather, tracked-chassis Quick Reaction Surface-to-Air Missile (QRSAM), intended to defend on the move Army formations operating in plains and semi-desert areas, was required to have an advanced RF seeker which can engage all kinds of target handling capability, including aircraft at altitudes up to 9 kms, hovering helicopters, missiles up to 900 m/s and low-flying targets, including those that suddenly appear at close range. It is an all-weather and all-terrain missile having electronic counter measures against all known aircraft jammers. The QRSAM's AESA radar with X-band should be able to track while scanning out to 28 kms and Battery Surveillance radar range upto 120 kms anf Fire Control radar tracking range upto 80 kms; provide 3-D, 360-degree coverage; recognize identification-friend-or-foe beacons; detect ballistic and cruise missiles; and guide four missiles to separate targets.
The Indian government has cleared the way for a massive $2.2-billion procurement effort for quick-reaction surface-to-air missiles (QR-SAMs) to arm eight air defence regiments of the Indian Army. The missiles are intended to replace obsolete Soviet medium-level 2K12E "Kub" (SA-6 Gainful) Kvadrat mobile air-defence systems (designed to protect ground forces), most of which are unserviceable anyway. This marks the second effort by the army in the last 5 years, after the indigenously developed Akash SAM. The QR-SAM system is considered to be a unique system in its class, the missile is expected to supplement medium range surface-to-air missile Akash.
Pralay ballistic based on Shaurya hybrid propulsion missile, like a ballistic missile, it is powered by solid fuel; and, like a cruise missile, it can guide itself right up to the target. QR-SAM and Pralay missile systems both will be truck mounted canister missile systems which will allow India’s Strike Corps to use them as Shield and Sword on the battlefield.
Low-Level Quick Reaction Missile system (LLQRM) is an Indian Air Force requirement that should not be confused with the similar Indian Army Quick Reaction Surface-to-Air Missile (QRSAM) requirement, which was supposed to be a joint project with the French.
A long-ranged SAM can be guided to an enemy target in the sky, only as long as target illumination is provided by terrestrial sensors like fire-control radar. However, given the Earth’s curvature, there’s no way a ground-based target illuminator will be able to illuminate a target flying 400km away. Only a fire-control radar is sitting atop a high mountain will it be able to illuminate targets like AEW & CS platforms. Due to this reality, LR-SAMs are definitely not cost-effective AEW & CS killers. Instead, the best killer alternative is a stealthy loitering PGM that can generate EMP pulses when in close proximity to the airborne AEW & CS platform, since the location of any AEW & CS platform can be localised by fighter on-board RWR sensor.
The weapon was first used to defend Saudi Arabia and Israel in the 1991 Gulf War. During that war 47 Patriot missiles fired at incoming Scuds, only four missiles were downed. On 25 Feb. 25, 1991, a Scud evaded a Patriot strike and scored a direct hit on a U.S. base in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, killing 28 American soldiers.
It was deployed again during the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003. No Scuds were fired during that war. But the Patriots were also reported to have downed two allied jets — one American and one British — in friendly fire incidents during the conflict.
Each Patriot battery is manned by about a hundred troops, and contains a radar, plus four launchers. A battery can fire two types of Patriot missile. The latest version of PAC-3 has a range of 35 kilometers which is shorter range (about 20 kilometers) versus 160 kilometers for the PAC 2 anti-aircraft version used against low flying UAVs. A PAC 2 missile weighs about a ton, a PAC 3 weighs about a third of that.
The PAC 3 has a shorter range (about 20 kilometers (although the latest version can do 35 kilometers) versus 160 kilometers for the latest anti-aircraft version. The Missile Segment Enhancement (MSE) upgrade includes a new fin design and a more powerful rocket engine. The modification is alleged to increase the operational capability of the current PAC-3 missile up to 50%.
Patriot upgrades continue, with the most recent being new software known as PDB-6 (PDB for "Post Deployment Build"). This software will allow Configuration 3 units to discriminate targets of all types, to include anti-radiation missile carriers, helicopters, unmanned aerial vehicles, and cruise missiles.
Buk-M1/Shtil-1 SA-N-7B (NATO: SA-11 Gadfly) "Smerch" missile systems & Snow Drift surveillance radar fitted on Russian destroyers has the 3S90M. The modified version is the HQ-16 which is a joint development project between China and Russia that apparently represents a further evolution of the Russian Grizzly. The missile system uses the Russian Top Dome J-band radar.
The HQ-12 can only engage targets that fly 300 meters above ground, according to the promotion brochure of its export version, called the KS-1A system. The HQ-16 can intercept very low-flying targets at a distance of up to about 40 kilometers, filling the gap between the HQ-7 short-range SAM and the HQ-9 long-range SAM systems.
Buk-M3 carries twelve 9A317M rockets and is designed to destroy cruise missiles, precision bombs, rotary wing aircraft , fixed wing, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicle.
- SM-1 and SM-2 are air defense missiles,
- SM-3 is intended exclusively to destroy medium/long-range ballistic missiles and low orbit satellites (maneuverable in outer space)
- SM-4 is a land attack missile.
The RIM-66/67 Standard Missile (SM) is an all-weather, supersonic, ship-launched, medium to long-range fleet air defense missile providing defense for an entire fleet area and were developed as the replacement for Terrier, Talos and Tartar surface-to-air missiles. The RIM-66A Standard Missile 1 (or SM-1) entered service in 1967 and underwent a major upgrade RIM-66C Standard Missile 2 (or SM-2) in the late 1970s. These older SM-2 missile has a max range of 190 kilometers and max altitude of 24.4 kilometers. The SM-2 uses a "semi-active" guidance system, which requires that a special targeting radar "light up" the target with a radar beam, which the SM-2 guidance system detects and homes in on. The SM-2 ER entered service in 1980.
The SM-6 is a 1.5 ton, 6.55 meter (21.5 foot) long, 533mm (21 inch) diameter missile. It has a max altitude of 33 kilometers (110,000 feet). SM-6 has longer range and more effective guidance (and resistance to countermeasures like jamming) than the SM-2 and is meant to deal with aircraft, cruise missile and ballistic missiles. Max range of the SM-6 is given as 240 kms. The SM-6 entered service in 2011 is basically an updated SM-2 anti-aircraft missile with the more capable guidance system of the AMRAAM missile.
It is designed to counter high G or supersonic maneuvering anti-ship missiles. ESSM also has the ability to be "quad-packed" in the Mk 41 VLS system, allowing up to four ESSMs to be carried in a single cell. Block 2 can deal with faster anti-ship missiles and the growing use of electronic countermeasures by anti-ship missiles. Block 2 is more maneuverable and because of new software it is also “smarter.”
The NATO Sea Sparrow missile programme began in 1990 and was developed by the German-U.S. Navy and nine of the other 11-member NATO nations which includes Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey; plus Australia. Basically, the missile is an upgrade of the RIM-7 Sea Sparrow air-to-air missile with the guidance system from the Stinger shoulder-fired anti-aircraft missile.
Designed during the 1960s for dual role use as a nuclear armed standoff weapon equivalent to the RAF's Blue Steel, and as an anti-shipping missile with either radar or anti-radiation seekers, the Kh-22 remains in service as the primary armament of the RuAF's residual fleet of Tu-22M3 Backfires. While the Tu-95K-22 Bear G was equipped to carry up to three Kh-22s, its progressive retirement has limited use to the Backfire.
Its a 2 ton, 2-staged anti-aircraft air defence missile capable of destroying targets with a low Radar Cross Section (RCS) flying at low, medium and very high altitude. It includes ECCM (Electronic Counter-Counter Measures) equipment and carries a 200-kg warhead but it is still dependent on the ground radar for guidance to a target and is vulnerable to electronic interference.
Sayyad-2 missile has a maximum range of 80 kilometers and max altitude of 20,000 meters (65,000 feet). It uses solid fuel rocket motors and some of the electronics from the China's LY-80E / HQ-6 which is largely based on the Italian Selenia Aspide missile and upgraded Russian S-75/SA-2 system. The the Italian Selenia Aspide missile is itself is inspired by the American AIM-7 Sparrow missile. It's to be used with the S-200 'Talash' system rather than with a modern three-dimensional radar. It can engage multiple targets. It has incorporated technology from the U.S. 1960's MIM-23 Hawk and Standard surface to air missiles.
It uses the airframe of the RIM-66 (SM-1) naval SAM that Iran acquired from the United States in the 1970s. Iran's manufactured version is called Mehrab and it has a passive radar homing capability that allows it to engage aircraft that attempt to use electronic countermeasures to jam its active radar homing system.
Iran has also unveiled what it claims is an indigenously produced version of the MIM-23 HAWK system known as the Mersad, which is claimed to have a range of 40 km. A vehicle-mounted version of the system known as the Ghader was unveiled in 2012.
The Russian S-75 Dvina system was also deployed in Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis, where on October 27, 1962, it shot down a U-2 overflying Cuba, almost precipitating nuclear war. It was also extensively used by North Vietnam during the Vietnam War to defend Hanoi and Haiphong. The USSR upgraded the radar several times to improve electronic counter measure (ECM) resistance. They also introduced a passive guidance mode, whereby the tracking radar could lock on the jamming signal itself and guide missiles directly towards the jamming source. This also meant the SAM site's tracking radar could be turned off, which prevented AGM-45 Shrikes anti-radiation missiles from homing in on it. Despite these advances, the US was able to come up with effective ECM. The missile system was used widely throughout the Middle East, where Egypt and Syria used them to defend against the Israeli Air Force, with the air defence net accounting for the majority of the downed Israeli aircraft.
The Barak-8 is fitted with a 44-pound warhead to ensure damage or destruction in near-miss engagements. The warhead has its own seeker that can find the target despite most countermeasures. The system has a very short reaction time and a fast missile. The missiles are mounted in a three ton, eight cell container (which requires little maintenance), and has vertical launch capability with 360° coverage.
The Barak 8 can operate day and night, in all weather conditions, and successfully deals with simultaneous threats engagements, even in severe saturation scenarios. The compact (for easy installation on a ship) fire control module weighs under two tons. The land version can be mounted on trucks.
Barak 8 is considered to be a major asset for Indian Navy because it adds a potent system designed to destroy any anti-ship missile launched by Pakistani or Chinese navy. According to Israel Aerospace Industries, Barak 8 and its multi-mission radar provides multi-layered protection against a variety of aerial platforms and munitions including aircraft, helicopters, unmanned aircraft and sea-skimming missiles.
The missile itself comes in 2 versions. The medium-range weapon is the baseline missile, offering a range capability from less than two miles to at least 43 miles. Engagement upper ceiling has not been disclosed, but the missile has been proven against very low-flying targets such as sea skimming, anti-ship missiles. IAI has also developed an extended-range version that employs the same hardware, but adds a booster rocket to extend maximum range of around 93 miles.
Barak-8’s shorter range variant (50km) will be used by the Indian Army, for air defence as well anti-PGM capabilities.
During the Kargil conflict of 1999, when the navy was preparing for war, the admirals realised to their dismay that they had no counter to the Pakistan Navy’s Harpoon anti-ship missiles. The bigger and more sophisticated Indian warships, some costing half a billion dollars, were vulnerable to being sunk by the Harpoon, which costs less than $2 million. New Delhi approached Tel Aviv for an emergency procurement of the Barak anti-missile missile, which tided over that crisis. Pleased with the Barak, New Delhi and Tel Aviv agreed in January 2006 to develop a 70-kilometre version of the Barak to counter anti-ship missiles of the future.
The Israelis call this cutting-edge missile system the Barak-8, while India calls it the LR-SAM. MR-SAM, is also one of the major demands of the forces, is to have a range of 85 kms or so, and the IAF is banking on replacing its ageing Soviet-made Pechora SAM missiles with the MR-SAMs. In July 2007 the counterpart MR-SAM project began moving forward, aiming to develop a medium-range SAM for use with India’s land forces. Both missiles would now be called Barak-8. The entire system’s performance – sensors, command and control, communications and intercept has been evaluated in Negev desert in 2014.
The work share was divided, with 30 per cent going to the DRDO, which was charged with developing the LR-SAM’s solid-fuel, two-pulse propulsion motors. Israeli company, Rafael, has developed the rest of the interceptor missile. IAI has built the rest of the systems, including the sophisticated MF-STAR phased array multi mission radar, two-way data link, and flexible command and control system enabling the system to be used as an area defense system, by integrating several fire units, sensors and command centers into an air defense ‘networked mesh’. The delay in the LR-SAM of three-to-four years has been caused mainly by the DRDO’s difficulties in building the sophisticated two-pulse motor. Eventually, it succeeded in developing a stable propellant for this purpose.
It provides high level of protection against a variety of aerial platforms and munitions including aircraft, helicopters, unmanned aircraft and sea-skimming missiles under all weather conditions. In addition to conventional sea skimming missiles, which fly in subsonic speed, Barak 8 is also designed to defeat advanced threats such as the supersonic cruise missiles such as the new CX-1 or Yakhont.
The LR-SAM will also be installed on INS Vikrant, the indigenous aircraft carrier being built in Kochi. It is almost certain that several more warships would be equipped with the LR-SAM. Israel is already manufacturing Barak 8 and installed in on its three 1,075 ton Saar-5 class corvettes. This meant that Barak 8 was ready for action over a year before its scheduled 2015 service date. Israel is believed to have rushing this installation because Russia had sent high speed Yakhont anti-ship missiles to Syria and Barak 8 was designed to deal with this kind of threat. Barak 8 is also Israel’s first air defense system equal to the American Patriot (and similar systems like the U.S. Navy SM-2, Russian S-300, and European Aster 15). An improved Barak 8 would be able to shoot down short range ballistic missiles.
The Barak-8 missile will be used as a point-defense system on warships, defending against aircraft, anti-ship missiles and unmanned aerial vehicles. The missile can hit targets at a range now moves close to 85 km. These missiles are mounted in an eight-cell container and are launched straight up. The warhead has its own seeker that can find the target despite most countermeasures. The radar system provides 360 degree coverage while the missiles can take down an incoming target as close as 500 meters from the ship.
The manufacturing supply chain that is now emerging includes several private sector companies, such as Godrej & Boyce, and SEC. The LR-SAM system will be integrated at state-owned Bharat Dynamics Ltd.
DRDO signed a contract to the develop an Army version MR-SAM (Medium Range Surface to Air Missile) and its Naval version LR-SAM (Long-Range Surface to Air Missile); in partnership with Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI). This is a version of the MR-SAM built by Bharat Dynamics Ltd (BDL) for the IAF. There are only minor difference in the naval LR-SAM is that it is fired from sealed canisters that protect the missile from the corrosive marine environment. The LR-SAM primarily targets sea-skimming, anti-ship missiles. The missiles are the same for all versions, except for the software that controls their “self-destruct” function. The cost of speculated to be Rs 6 crore per missile, which is cheap, given that it shoots down sophisticated fighters costing hundreds of crore and protects warships that cost thousands of crore. In March 2017, the Standing Committee stated the project cost was Rs 10,076 crore.
The low-profile collaborative project between India and Israel that is fully under way is the LR-SAM. It is a high-performance, long-range missile that can be launched from ships and land. LRSAM is a state of the art system. The Armed forces had actually tried to buy such a system from abroad, but nothing was really available that would come with satisfactory terms. And that is how we got into a joint venture with Israel, the system had to be developed ab initio. So there were issues with respect to radar development, issues with respect to the actuation system as well which was initially supposed to be pneumatic but then had to be changed to electromechanical. Then there was the two pulse motor which was being done for the first time and that got into certain combustion stability problems. A number of flight trials of the LR-SAM have been conducted in Israel. While the DRDO will make the propulsion system, the actuation system and the seeker, Israel will come up with the avionics and other electronic systems. Israel will transfer the LR-SAM technology to India, and Bharat Dynamics (BDL) will start producing the missile from the year-end.
The Barak-8 LR-SAM is being developed and produced for both the Indian and the Israeli militarists and is capable of multiple engagements and providing defence against a host of airborne platforms and munitions from short as well as medium ranges. The Barak-2 missile system, at an estimated cost of $ 581 million, has reached the final stage. In February 2006, Israel and India signed a joint development agreement to create a new Barak-NG medium shipborne air defense missile, as an evolution of the Barak-1 system in service with both navies.
So far, the Indian Navy has been relying on Russian-origin “Shtil missiles” and Israeli Barak missiles for its air-defence. These missiles have a range of around 60 km. In July 2007 the counterpart MR-SAM project began moving forward, aiming to develop a MR-SAM for use with India’s land forces. The Barak-8 missiles are to equip the three guided missile destroyers of the Project 15A class which will join the Indian Navy in one year intervals beginning in 2012. In the first phase, the missile will arm the three Kolkata-class destroyers and each ship will have four vertical launch units (VLUs), each housing eight missiles. Both missiles would now be called Barak-8. The LR-SAM will be an important upgrade, especially when the Indian Navy has been tasked to dominate an increasingly volatile Indian Ocean region.
150 km variant Barak-NG
It is installed on two Type 052C FFG Luyang II hulls, Lanzhou (170) and Haikou (171). The radar is used in conjunction with the HQ-9 SAM to provide long-range air defense capability, a first for the Chinese Navy.
Chinese claims have indicated that this C-band radar is designated as Type 346, while domestic Chinese radar with longer range is designated as Type 348. However, such claims are disputed by other domestic Chinese sources (which are also yet to confirmed), which have claimed that the C-band Ukrainian radar is designated by China as Type 348 instead, while the domestic Chinese S-band radar is designated as Type 346, following the earlier H/LJG-346 and H/LJK-346 version.
MR-90 front dome fire control radars
Babur has two main variants 500KM & 700KM. It has the same 'AMR-1' seeker from the PL-12 and (its derivatives) SD-10A BVR air-to-air missiles & DK-10 Sky Dragon 50 SAM system. These active radar missile, and the earlier semi-active radar homing (was suppose to be licence-built) PL-11, all seemed to have a common design heritage with the Italian Aspide missile, 100 missiles were supplied to China during the late 1980s. There is also speculation that the engine of the Hatf VI has been provided by China (KH-55) in violation of the MTCR.
It has been speculated that Babur is based on the BGM-109 Tomahawk cruise missile, after six Tomahawks crash-landed on Pakistani territory in 1998 during US air-strikes on targets in Afghanistan, and its design seems to show this influence. The efforts to reverse engineer BGM-109 Tomahawk proved unsuccessful. Six Tomahawks crash-landed on Pakistani territory in 2001 during US airstrikes on targets in Afghanistan, and its design seems to show this influence. Tomahawk was not terribly high tech, and easy for the Pakistanis to copy. GPS made it easier to replace the earlier (and only high tech aspect of the missile) terrain following guidance system. By 2001 the Kh-55SM production engineering data was bought from Ukraine (redesigned RD95-300 turbofan that bore a strong resemblance to the Russian 36MT engine).
The 500km-range missile became the Babur. Its has been fitted with cruise missile technology of Terrain Contour Matching and Digital Scene Matching and Area Co-relation. And now checked for synchronisation with National Command Authority’s fully automated Strategic Command and Control Support System which means it “has added capability of real-time remote monitoring of the missile flight path. The terrain hugging ability helps the missile avoid enemy radar detection by utilizing "terrain masking", giving Babur the capability to penetrate enemy air defence systems undetected and survive until reaching the target.
The its 280km-range anti-ship variant, incorporating an active radar seeker with 40km range for anti-ship strike, was designated as the C-602 / YJ-62 long-range subsonic anti-ship cruise missile (China's export version: Pakistan calls it "Zarb" missile). Anti-ship missiles are made of various sensitive materials, so local temperature, humidity, salinity may cause problems.
The missile is equipped with a “mono-pulse frequency agile (active) radar seeker”. The missile has incorporated the capability to switch to more threatening ones should such threat arise but it is not clear whether this capability in built-in. The development program itself appears to date back as far back as 1989, under the designation XY-41. In various US sources of the 1990s and early 2000s the missile was also referred to as The Land Attack Silkworm.
Ultimately, Pakistan’s nuclear-capable cruise missiles have the potential to complicate India’s decision-making calculus and even constrain Indian strategic behaviour. First, Pakistan’s cruise missiles will pose a serious challenge to India’s fledgling missile defence system. Cruise missiles are virtually undetectable and highly survivable, even in the face of modern missile defences. The first few weeks of the 2003 Iraq War demonstrated that sophisticated missile defences could shoot down ballistic missiles with relative ease, but faced a significantly more difficult task in preventing a cruise missile strike. This is not to say that cruise missiles can never be shot down or that they are perfectly invulnerable. Several U.S. cruise missiles veered wildly off-course – in a guidance-system failure called “clobbering” – during its missile campaign against Afghanistan in 1998 and during the Iraq War. Additionally, cruise missile defence, unlike ballistic missile defence, is relatively new and technologies developed to deal with this threat are likely to emerge in the coming years. Nevertheless, these shortcomings are superseded by the tremendous advantages cruise missiles have over ballistic missiles in defeating existing missile defences.
If the goal of India’s missile defence system has been to bait Pakistan into an economically ruinous arms race – as some suggest the U.S. did with the Soviet Union in the 1980s – then it appears to be succeeding.
All Pakistani missiles are named Hatf (meaning “doom” in Arabic, but often mistranslated as “vengeance”). The missiles are numbered from I to IX, with each missile type also having a specific name.
HQ-6D / HQ-64 SAM is further improvement of HQ-6, utilizing the experience gained from LY-60, with the firepower doubled when the number of missiles for each truck mounted launcher is increased from two to four, and MLR is replaced by TELs. Both the missile and TELs are smaller and directly developed from LY-60.
While one SAM battery searches and tracks, another shoots and guides. Others move to new locations, denying an enemy an effective attack. These systems are networked, and may use diverse frequencies to penetrate ‘stealth’ designs. They feature redundant elements, so if the enemy is lucky and destroys one element, others seamlessly take its place. The missiles are fast, high flying and deadly, with advanced guidance systems and high resistance to electronic jamming. The radar makes use of all of the anti-jam design features the Russians cleverly built into the SA-10 and SA-20. To further confuse and deny an enemy a shot, realistic dummies and electronic decoys draw fire away from the real equipment.
Against a helicopter or non-stealth attack aircraft the radar provides surveillance out to 18km, tracking at 12km, and engagement at 10km. Against an inbound cruise missile the surveillance range drops to 8km. with the missile firing at 6km from an oncoming target.
The Chinese system incorporates technology from the U.S. Patriot missile defense system. Furthermore, HQ-9—unlike its American and Russian contemporaries—uses active electronically scanned array radar technology. The Chinese FD-2000 system had won the tender including 3.4 billion dollars in Turkey against the S-300PMU-2 Russian, SAMP / T Europe and the PAC-3 US before the Turks reverse their decision under NATO pressure. China has also made the naval version of HQ-9 missile system i.e. HHQ-9. However, the fact that the Chinese have bought six S-400 systems for $3 billion suggests not all is not well with the HQ-9, which incidentally hasn't won a single export order.
The three new HQ-9 acquisition radars are the Type 120, Type 305A, and Type 305B (also known as LLQ-305B), all self-propelled high mobility designs carried on licence built Mercedes-Benz NG 80 ‘North Benz’ heavy trucks – a wise decision that provides reliable transport with a low implementation and operating cost. Like the latest generation Russian designs, these radars are built to automatically stabilise on hydraulically deployed legs, and automatically unfold and elevate their antennas using hydraulic rams. The Chinese have yet to comment on deployment and stow times, but five minutes would be a reasonable estimate. In short, these are true ‘hide, shoot and scoot’ designs built for modern war-fighting.
Latin America has been buying Chinese surveillance radars in significant numbers. In Asia, PRC clients like Pakistan and Myanmar have been sold these technologies, and Pakistan is claimed to be procuring the HQ-9 system. China’s emerging search for raw material may require protection from air attack; area denial weapons are part of the required military capabilities. Sudan is a case-in-point. In many places, China has an obvious vested interest and will build influence and dependence. Russia's treatment of Iran over the S-300PMU1 / SA-20A Gargoyle order is likely to drive Iran directly into buying HQ-9 systems, arguably just as effective, and motivate other developing nations in turn to do the same.
The most visual distinction between SA-17 and HQ-16 is that the latter is truck based instead of track based SA-17, and the fire power is increased by 50% with the total number of missiles increased to six from the original four in SA-17 system.
Each 6 x 6 Transporter Erector Launcher (TEL) carries 6 sealed rounds, which are cold-launched vertically at a range of up to 40 km and an altitude of up to 18 km depending on target.
The missiles carry a semi-active radar seeker for guidance. The naval version of the HQ-16 is designated HHQ-16 and used on the Type 054A frigate.
HQ-9 SAM on Type 52D destroyer can take down a PJ-10 BrahMos SSM but FL-3000N / HHQ-10 cannot.
Two models of the HQ-10 have been seen on so far, one with 21 missile launch tubes and one with 18. The HQ-10 missile have a guidance system with a microwave radar and a heat seeker. This makes these missiles more difficult to jam.
The HQ-12 is a much shorter ranging system, intended to provide an inner layer defence, inside the footprint of the HQ-9. It is also mobile, and the radar looks to be based on much the same technology as the HQ-9, making it hard to detect, hard to track and hard to jam.
The original S-300 Triumfator was known to NATO, during the Cold War, as the SA-10 Grumble. It is a series of initially Soviet and later Russian long range surface-to-air missile systems produced by NPO Almaz, all based on the initial S-300P version. The P suffix stand for PVO-Strany (country air defence system). This system entered service in the late 1970s and was upgraded several times since then.
Initially, it was developed to defend against aircraft and cruise missiles. Subsequent variations were developed to intercept ballistic missiles. Its radars have the ability to simultaneously track up to 100 targets while engaging up to 12/24/36. S-300 deployment time is five minutes. They are sealed rounds and require no maintenance over their lifetime. However, the old system had problems tracking targets below 500 m.
The legacy of the venerable SA-2 and SA-6 missiles continues through their modern successors, including the S-300, S-400 and the astounding S-500. Because it can directly as well as indirectly influence the outcome of a war, the new generation Russian SAM is considered a strategic weapon. This is remarkable for a non-nuclear missile.
Later, it employed the 5V55KD missile and the cold launch method. The S-300 PMU (NATO name: SA-20 Gargoyle) with its 5V55R missile has a smaller warhead but increased engagement envelope which gave this missile roughly the same range and altitude capabilities as the newer 48N6 missile. The upgraded 5V55R missile has its range extended to 7–90 km and maximum target speed up to Mach 4 while engagement altitude was reduced to 25–25,000. The missile is designed to engage both modern and prospective air targets, including strategic, tactical and naval aircraft, strategic cruise missiles, air-launched missiles, tactical and battlefield ballistic missiles and other air attack weapons over a wide range of combat environments.
The S-300 has impressive DNA – it is a development of the S-75 missile that famously shot down the U-2 spy plane over Russia in 1960. One major upgrade came to be called the S-300V (SA-12) and it entered service in the late 1980s which was so different from the original S-300 that it was given a new name by the Russians: the S-400. Like the S-400 the range of S-300V4 new anti-ballistic missile also reaches 400 kilometers. The S-300V4 systems has been supplied to Russia’s Ground Forces in 2014.
S 300 PMU-2 Favorit / SA 20-B Gargoyle B is an upgraded air-defence system variant has a new missile with larger warhead and better guidance with a range of 200 km, versus the 150 km of the previous versions. The missiles use "cold" vertical launch - before starting sue-tainer they launched from a container to height over 30 metres. It had been designed to air-defend in heavy ECM environments. It is a highly mobile and automated control system. It is claimed that it has a kill ratio ranging from 0.8 to 0.93 against aircraft and from 0.8 to 0.98 against Tomahawk-class cruise missiles.
Each S-300/400 battery consists of 4-8 launcher vehicles (each with two missiles, plus two reloads) plus radar vehicles and a command vehicle. The warhead also features an active radar homing head, which can target an aircraft autonomously without the need for ground radar. If an aircraft tries to jam the incoming missile's radar, the missile can switch to anti-radiation mode, and target the jamming source.
An ingenious “trick” from the creators of the C-300 – Vertical start: anti-aircraft missile itself takes place in the air and falls on the combat course. Such a scheme allows you to place the launcher on any suitable “patch” in the folds of the landscape between the buildings in the narrow gorges and ravines, protected from the effects of shock waves of enemy weapons. In contrast, the C-300, an American anti-aircraft missile system “Patriot” have to waste precious time, turning the heavy launcher in the direction of the target. Because of the oblique launch, “Patriot” needs space and open space – launcher prevent closely spaced houses, hills and trees.
- A smaller, highly agile shorter-range 48N6 missile (250 kms) to target stealth fighters and strategic cruise missiles;
- Larger missiles with much more range -- a 40N6 missile (400 kms) to target ballistic missiles, AEW&C, bombers, refuelers.
*Another a newly available 40N6E (400 kms) interceptor missile is reported to have an intercept speed of up to 17000 kmph that means even an F-16 in clean configuration will find it impossible to get away from a 40N6 coming at it from 300-350 km away.
*There is also the high-maneuverability of the 9M96E2 (120 km) interceptor missile and powerful high-explosive fragmentation warhead provide effective destruction of targets travelling at up to 4800m/s. It has a target detection of 600 kms. The 9M96E2 missile are deployed four to a launcher, like S-300 systems.
The S-400 has 95% precision hitting the target against ballistic missiles. S-400 is primarily meant for engaging high-flying, non-manoeuvrable manned platforms and to hit liquid-fuelled intermediate ballistic missiles (as far as 1,000 or 3,500 km) and solid-fuelled short-range ballistic missiles (up from 700 to 60 km). The S-400 claims to be superior to the U.S. Patriot and is expensive. The S-400 has more range (300 km) than the U.S. Patriot (160 km) and claims the ability to detect stealthy aircraft. No existing aircraft can outrun the missile which travels at 7200 km/h and has a maximum altitude of 98,000 ft. Russia is now offering to export the S-400, despite all the advanced technology.
Also, the upgraded versions of the S-300 can hit aircraft and missiles flying as low as 20 ft. But the upgraded S-300 and the S-400 radars were not original designed to operate at the high frequencies, so they would have had very limited capabilities against intercepting multiple low-flying cruise missiles. A full division of S-400s can simultaneously track 36 targets and guide 72 missiles. In order to defeat the system, the enemy has to launch around 50 missiles. In any case, weapons quality tracking and targeting, multiple low-flying missiles that flying at cruise-speed over land, is next to impossible due to the physical constraints of the amount of radar clutter produced by the terrain which largely makes it impossible to detect anything at low enough altitude. Most radar systems (even Pantsir batteries) are pretty much useless at very low altitudes over land, unless the target is less around 3 kms in range.
The Russia-specific S-500 Prometey (also known as 55R6M 'Triumfator-M') is not an upgrade of the S-400, but a whole new design specifically created to destroy enemy ICBMs during mid-early flight. It might also be capable of shooting down low-orbiting satellites. The S-500 will use a Russian X-band APAR. It is possible that Russia will roll out a modified version of the S-400 as an interim system, and they may call it the S-500. The thing to look for will be whether Moscow can deploy the 77N6 hypersonic missiles, as these are the key to developing a real ballistic missile defense system. Two new missiles have been designed for the S-500 (and the S-400): the 77N6-N and 77N6-N1, suggest that S-500 system will employ hit-to-kill with targets flying at hypersonic speeds (7 km/s). The S-500’s interceptors will operate at an altitude higher than 185km. The system will be highly mobile and have a response time of about 3 to 4 seconds, which is considerably shorter than the S-400 which is rated at 9 to 10 seconds. A naval version is the likely armament for the new Leader-class air-defense destroyers due to enter service in 2023-25.
Development of the system began in 2010 as a response to the Russian refused the exportation of its advanced S-300 surface-to-air missile systems which Iran had ordered. International sanctions, plus pressure from the United States and Israel led Russia to cancel the Iranian order.
Bavar (belief) 373 radar and fire control system is supposed to be ready for final testing in 2017. It also will be able to undertake a cold launch from systems similar to existing missiles, such as the Tor-M1 and it uses a phased array radar.
The complex on a single chassis BAZ-6909 consists of 360 degrees radar and 12 launchers for medium-and short-range type 9M96, 9M100 missiles production of MKB "Fakel". The complex can simultaneously track up to 48 targets and fire 8 of them at a distance of 120 km and at altitude of 30km.
The new system will have a more advanced radar and a launcher with 16 missiles compared to only four on the S-300. In February 2013, the Russian Ministry of Defense and Almaz-Antey announced the first flight test for the Vityaz 50R6 for autumn 2013. According to Almaz, Vityaz could replace older SAMs like the S-125 while adding multiple-target and anti-missile capabilities. According to information released in 2003, the system can be delivered in two configurations: a version optimised for protecting against high-precision weapons (cruise missiles, ARMs, smart bombs and tactical UAVs) able to simultaneous engage up to eight target.
In February 2006, IPT reported that warning bells have been sounded at an international summit over the mounting terrorist threats to sea lanes around Indonesia and the Straits of Malacca, which serves as a choke-point for a significant percentage of global shipping. At a subsequent high-level meeting in the United States that included Australia, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan and others, Stratfor reported that India was asked to play a major policing role against sea-piracy in the region. To the west, India is also undertaking anti-piracy efforts on the East African coast, with a base in Madagascar and a recent military co-operation agreement with Mozambique that includes coastal patrol responsibilities. The Indian Navy relies on its fleet of around 15 Dornier 228-101 aircraft and 12 Israeli Searcher Mark II and Heron unmanned aerial vehicles to monitor India’s 7,516 km long coastline, 1,197 islands and a 2.01 square km exclusive economic zone.
In 2005, India’s $133 million deal for 2 P-3C Orion maritime-optimized patrol and surveillance planes fell through on grounds of expense, support costs, and timing. Apparently, it would have taken 18-24 months for the US Navy to retrofit the aircraft to the Indian Navy’s specifications. The P-3 was based on the Electra civilian airliner that first flew in 1954.
Based on INS Rajali, a naval base at Arakonam, near Chennai, the P-8I will fly 8-hour missions to seek out pirates, suspicious cargo vessels, or hostile warships and submarines. Its enhanced internal fuel tanks allow it to fly 1,100 kilometers to a patrol area, remain “on station” for six hours, and then fly back 1,100 kilometres to Arakonam. Using aerial refuelling, this range could be doubled.
The P-8 Poseidon is based on the widely used Boeing 737 airliner. The B-737 is a more modern design and has been used successfully since the 1960s by commercial aviation. The initial operational capability of P-8A was achieved in November 2013. Although the Boeing 737 based P-8A is a two engine jet, compared to the four engine turboprop P-3, it is a more capable plane. Each engine is equipped with a 180KVA engine driven generator. Combined with the 90KVA commercial APU, this provides 450KVA of power. P-8 possesses significant growth capacity for equipment with excess onboard power and cooling capacity.
The P-8A has 23% more floor space than the P-3 and is larger (38 meter/118 foot wingspan, versus 32.25 meter/100 foot) and heavier (83 tons versus 61). Most other characteristics are the same. Both can stay in the air about 10 hours per sortie. Speed is different. Cruise speed for the 737 is 910 kilometers an hour, versus 590 for the P-3. This makes it possible for the P-8A to get to a patrol area faster, which is a major advantage when chasing down subs first spotted by distant sonar arrays or satellites. The P-8 can fly up to 41,000 feet and travel up to 490 knots.
The P-8I’s key strength lies in its sophisticated sensors. A multi-mode radar picks up aircraft, surface ships and submarines. Another belly-mounted radar looks backwards, like an electronic rear-view-mirror. P-8 has twice the sonobuoy processing capability and can carry 30 percent more sonobuoys than any maritime patrol and reconnaissance aircraft currently flying. Any suspected threat could be investigated further: sonobuoys are dropped to zero in on suspected enemy submarines, radioing back any suspicious sounds that they pick up. A submarine would be picked up also by a magnetic anomaly detector (MAD) on the P-8I’s tail. Training has shown that Indian subs (similar models to what China has) can be detected and tracked by the P-8I. The equipment and techniques are remarkably similar to the half century old P-3s, the most successful maritime patrol aircraft ever. Both carry the same size crew of 10-11 pilots and equipment operators.
The P-3 can carry more weapons (9 tons versus 5.6). This includes anti-ship AGM-84 Harpoon Block II missiles which can hit ships or land targets thanks to GPS guidance; the Mark 82 depth charge that is standard equipment with the US Navy and improved radar resolution that can cut through near-shore clutter. To destroy short-ranged enemy submarine targets, five Mark 54 lightweight torpedoes lie warm in a special compartment in the aircraft’s belly and can be enhanced with the HAAWC kit for high-altitude, GPS-guided drops.
The P-8A will be the first 737 designed with a bomb bay and four wing racks for weapons. Boeing also reportedly has a license to export the longer-range AGM-84K SLAM-ER, which adds more range and land attack features. P-8 has the ability to control unmanned air vehicles (level 2 control-receive) to extend sensor reach.
Industrial partners in India, or specific to India’s version, reportedly include:
- Avantel – mobile satellite system
- Bharat Electronics Ltd (BEL) – IFF interrogator, Data Link II system
- CAE, Inc. – AN/ASQ-508A Magnetic Anomaly Detector
- Dynamatic Technologies Ltd.
- Electronic Corporation of India Ltd (ECIL) – “speech secrecy system”
- HCL Technologies Ltd.
- Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. (HAL)
- Maini Global Aerospace (MGA) – fuel cell structural components, P-8A & P-8i
- Northrop Grumman – Early warning self-protection (EWSP) and electronic support measures (ESM) systems, Embedded GPS/Inertial Navigation System (EGI)
- Macmet Technologies Ltd., a subsidiary of simulator-maker CAE – simulators.
- Larsen and Toubro Ltd. (L&T)
- Telephonics Corp. – The AN/APS-143Cv3 OceanEye radar
- Wipro Ltd.
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The estimated cost of India's Netra "Eye" mini-AEW&C project is Rs 9,000 to Rs 10,000 crore and the eventual plan is to induct 8 such aircraft.
The LSTAR is a S-Band AESA radar being developed by DRDO for use on the under development AEW&CS aircraft. The LSTAR (Lightweight Surveillance and Target Acquisition Radar) system, also known as AN/TPQ-51 is a lightweight surveillance and target acquisition radar.
The LSTAR family of air surveillance radars provides 3-D and 360 degree electronic scanning capabilities for detecting and tracking the most difficult targets. The radars provide reliable detection and tracking of traditional aircraft (commercial, small/private, and rotary wing) and non-traditional aircraft, such as low altitude, slow flying, small radar cross-section targets like ultra lights, para-gliders/hang-gliders and unmanned aircraft systems, or UAS.
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E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Could Support India’s Future Naval Force and replace the IAF Beriev A-50EI Mainstay AWACS aircraft.
The AN/APY-9 radar, with a two-generation leap in capability, is the backbone of this aircraft and provides greater flexibility and significantly improved detection and tracking over all terrains.
The Russian Air Force operates 26 A-50 planes.
Beriev A-50 was developed to replace the Tupolev Tu-126 "Moss" and India's 8 Russian Tupolev Tu-142 (NATO code name: Bear).
India ordered three A-50EI variants, developed on the basis of the Russian Il-76MD military transport plane and fitted with the Israeli-made Phalcon radar system, in 2004. Currently, the Indian Air Force (IAF) operates 3 (with 2 more in the pipeline) A-50 aircrafts.
The CAG report, tabled in Parliament on Friday, said the AWACS were “high value national assets” that could be “a deciding factor” during conflicts. But there was “sub-optimal utilization” of their operational capabilities in terms of “flying tasks” due to poor planning and serviceability. “On an average, there was a 43% shortfall against the established task of 1,500 flying hours per annum”.
Russia's A-50U uses modern (digital, rather than analog) systems and has a max range of 600 kilometers. The new computers allow far more (150) aircraft to be tracked and this is done more quickly and with fewer equipment breakdowns. The A-50U can control ten warplanes at a time, while these aircraft perform air-to-air or ground attack missions. The upgrade also included welcome crew amenities (a rest area with a gallery and improved toilet) for the ten equipment operators and five flight personnel.
The A-100, nicknamed “flying mushroom” due to the distinctive rotating radar dome above the fuselage, is an upgrade of its A-50 predecessor that first flew in 1978 and entered service in 1984. The plane is built around a multi-lateration radar unit featuring a pair of phased-array antennas capable of detecting enemy fighter planes at a distance of up to 600 kilometers and surface ships up to 400 kilometers away.
“The A-100 is a classified project, but I believe they may be using compact UHF elements working both as receivers and transmitters. This will notably increase the radar’s range and accuracy. All our interceptors and air defenders will need is fire their missiles and forget”.
Unlike the Russian A-50 or U.S. E-3, which rotate their roto-domes to give 360 degree coverage, the KJ-2000’s radar antenna does not rotate. Instead, three ESA antenna modules are placed in a triangular configuration inside the round radome to provide a 360 degree coverage. China’s KJ-2000 radar currently has the longest range in the world. At present, 11 are in service with China.
KJ-500 AWACS (supplementing the KJ-2000) is based on China’s new transport aircraft, Y-9, manufactured by Shaanxi Aircraft Company. The Y-9 is an improved version of the Y-8 which was developed from the Soviet era AN-12 transport aircraft. It is a four engine turboprop powered by improved Chinese WJ-6C turboprop engines.
The KJ-500 AWACS can track over 60 aircrafts at ranges up to 470 km. There is no rotating antenna in the KJ-500. The scanning in azimuth and elevation is done electronically. The limitation of 120°coverage for each flat antenna is because the highest value, which can be achieved for the Field of View (FOV) of a planar phased array antenna, is 120°. Thus, by placing three antennas side by side full 360 degrees coverage is obtained. Elevation scanning is also done, electronically, by the array source.
In the India-China context both PLAAF and IAF will face AWACS performance limitations in the mountains, since undulations in the terrain will create detection problems for aircraft masked behind hills. The laws of physics are universally applicable and requirement of line of sight condition has to be met for radar pick up.