"Respect the strong, blackmail the weak" ~ a Chinese saying.
A single western theatre PLA command handles the border with India, integrating the earlier Chengdu and Lanzhou military regions.
Based on the Indian Army’s strategic requirement, 231 roads of a total length of 7122.47 km in Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) have been included in the long-term roll-on works plan (LTRoWP) for construction/upgrading out of which 157 roads are planned for completion up to 2020 and the remaining 74 roads after 2020. Apart from the 231 roads being constructed/upgraded, 133 completed roads are exclusively entrusted to Border Roads Organisation in J&K for maintenance.
73 roads approved along the India-China border. Defence ministry has identified four strategic rail lines along the India-China border -- Missamari-Tenga-Tawang (378 km), Bilaspur-Manali-Leh (498 km), Pasighat-Tezu-Rupai (227 km) and North Lakhimpur-Bame-Silapathar (249 km). India will build 96 more temperature controlled integrated ITBP border outposts (BoPs) along the 3,488 km long India-China border bringing a total to 272. ITBP will raise nine more battalions (around 9,000 men) for its new outposts. The new posts will also help reduce the time taken by the troops to travel on this arduous terrain, help in supplies of rations to the posts located at the altitude of 12,000 to 18,000 feet and also help in keeping a close watch over the Chinese army build-up in a tense situation.
China has a credible mix of multi role fighter and strike aircraft. They have got adequate reserve to replenish after attrition. They have multi-layered air defence systems and rocket forces. For them, the geography works against them especially in the Tibet Autonomous Region. They have an inherent operational disadvantage due to altitude, very cold temperatures.
IAF has activated 6 high-altitude landing grounds near the border – Walong, Ziro, Along, Tuting, Passighat and Mechuka. A total of 3,000 sensitive bases, including 600 highly sensitive installations of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force have been identified. A parliamentary panel had come down hard on the defence ministry for failing to take any concrete measures to beef up security at frontline "vulnerable" military bases.
Z stands for Tibet / Xizang
Chinese Water Resources Minister Wang Shucheng, a hydraulic engineer explained: “For example, we must keep an eye on possible floods when the Yellow River has 58 billion cubic metres of water. If another 50 billion cubic metres, not to mention 200 billion, is poured in, I am sure all the dams and protection embankments will be destroyed immediately.”
“China is an ambitious country which envisions being unchallenged in Asia and being on a par with the United States globally. China has managed to dominate Asia through a clever mix of diplomacy and coercion.”
During Operation Desert Storm: 42 F-117A had 1271 attack missions, 84 F-111 had 4000 missions, 75 CH-53 helicopters had 2045 missions, 84 F/A-18 had 5047 missions, 120 F-15 had 2200 missions, 120 CH-46 Sea Knight helicopters had 1601 missions, 144 A-10 had 8100 missions and 249 F-16 had 13,500 missions. The B-52G Stratofortresses flew 1,624 missions, dropped 72,000 weapons, delivered 25,700 tons of munitions on area targets, and had a mission-capable rate of 81%--2 % higher than its peacetime rate. The B-52Gs dropped 29% of all US bombs and 38% of all USAF bombs during the war.
The imaginary line called Heihe Tengchong line was drawn by Chinese geographer Hu Huanyong in 1935. It divides China into two distinctly different regions. West of this line, China’s 64% of land area supports only 4% of its population, where as 96% of its population lives in the eastern side of the line. Thus, Agni V, which has a range of 5000 km should be able to reach key economic installations in any part of this area. This will be a key deterrent to Chinese aggression in Indian ocean.
It began with the original Han (ethnic Chinese) whose civilization first appeared north of the Yangtze River. Up there the main grain crops were wheat, barley and the like. Rice is a much more productive crop (in terms of calories produced per unit of land) but is more labor intensive and require a higher degree of organization and discipline. It also requires more water which is why the drier north (north of the Yangtze River) remained reliant on non-rice grains. It took centuries to perfect rice cultivation (nearly 10,000 years ago) , which is a more complex process than for other grains. The lesson for the West is that while the Chinese may appear monolithic they are anything but.
The Chinese government attack the communists right after Japan surrendered in August 1945. The Nationalist government of China underestimated the communists, who then proceeded to defeat all the Nationalist armies after about three years of fighting. The nationalists took a big gamble, sending their best troops into Manchuria in late 1945 to try to knock out the communists. This ignored the well-known fact that a huge Russian army had just defeated Japanese forces in Manchuria and the Russians were giving the Chinese communists huge quantities of military supplies. Had the nationalists been more prudent they would not have lost South China and the war, by 1948.
China’s perception of itself as the ‘Middle Kingdom’ is also because its very large empire was surrounded by smaller states, so there was this sense that China is the centre of civilisation, and as you move away from that centre, you have less and less civilised states. Maybe the history that China presents is not a manufactured history, but it is certainly a selective history — trying to put forth a vision that is only partially true. There were situations in which China was itself a supplicant and a tributary to others — for example after they were defeated by the Tibetans, for quite some time, the Chinese empire paid tribute to the Tibetans — and China was also occupied by others, for example, the Mongols.
China’s comprehensive national power today is about 3 times higher than India. And in next 50 years we will not be able to equal it. China annual internal security budgets since 2007 have outstripped its annual defence budgets. A police state always looks upon its own citizens as its principal enemy. China’s vast network of official and unofficial police, armed militia, jails and overall state security, i.e. keeping the country’s 1.3 billion people in check. Consequently, China can never achieve national cohesion which in turn makes its military highly demoralised. China is converting its economic power into its military and strategic power at a very fast rate, faster than what we had anticipated. They have advanced their strategic ability build-up by about 10 years. China says this is a misrepresentation, and that these funds also go to things like improving public transportation or food safety.