Only the wind component flowing parallel to the chord line accelerates and produces lift. On a high-speed aircraft, this decreases the airflow acceleration over the airfoil - preventing supersonic flow and wave drag. But, at low speeds, the sweep decreases the amount of lift that the airfoil generates.
On a slow-flying aircraft you don't have to worry about supersonic airflow over the wing or tail. (You'd have much bigger problems by that point...) But, the swept tail still "sees" only a component of airflow - and generates less force than a straight tail. So, a swept tail must be larger than a straight tail, which increases drag. The increase in drag isn't massive, and the swept shape looks fast.
It has a single GE F404 after-burning turbofan engine which is also used in the Hornet. It has a large cockpit with what appears to have excellent visibility, plus a (LERX) leading-edge root extension. The plane can be modified to accept two hard points per wing (it’s not a requirement to have any). The aircraft was designed to offer high angle-of-attack (AoA) and high-g performance. Its also compatible with night vision goggles, something that the T-38 lacks.
Most people associate Boeing with big commercial airliners, but the company inherited a number of fast-jet programs when it acquired McDonnell-Douglas in the 1990s, including the T-45 Goshawk advanced trainer which it builds for the Navy. Experience with the T-45 and the Navy's F/A-18 Super Hornet influenced the design of T-X, which Boeing has partnered with Swedish firm Saab to build. Boeing plane includes twin stabilizers, as do the war planes the pilots will be training to fly. Sierra’s aircraft does too but it hasn’t flown yet.
Boeing was keen to exploit Saab’s lean manufacturing know-how to develop the aircraft in an affordable and agile manner. The two companies are building a plane with very little touch labor and are using advanced adhesives, 3-D printing (additive manufacturing to the faithful) and other techniques to “break the cost curve”.
South Korean's Samsung KAI TA-50 (LIFT/ “F-16 Lite spinoff” attack-variant) Golden Eagle supersonic single-engine advanced trainer and multi-role fighters. It has over 100,000 flight hours.
The T-50 Golden Eagle design is largely derived from the Lockheed Martin F-16 Fighting Falcon, and they have much in common: use of a single motor, speed, size, cost and range of weapons. Previous techniques KAI's experience in producing the license KF-16 has benefited significantly in the T-50 design.
The T-50 Golden Eagle uses a General Electric F404-102 turbofan engine produced under license by Samsung Techwin, upgraded with a Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) system jointly developed by General Electric and Korea Aerospace Industries. The engine consists of three-staged fans, seven axial stage arrangement, and an afterburner. The aircraft has a maximum speed of Mach 1.4-1.5. The engine delivers a maximum of 78.7 kN (17,700 lbf) of thrust with afterburner. The General Electric F414 engine has been proposed as the new engine for the T-50 family, but also Rolls Royce EJ200 for better compatibility with the European air forces. Both engines deliver more thrust compared to the F404.
The T-50's central processing unit and the operating system developed by MDS technology. The T-50's avionics system is the first and only real-time operating system developed by an Asian company, and receives the DO-178B certification. Samsung Thales and LIG Nex1 are the main avionics and electronic warfare equipment developer for T-50 and its variants. Other South Korean companies such DoDAAM Systems and Aero Master are responsible for the secondary of the aircraft avionics, including store management computers, avionics test equipment, flight data recorders, portable maintenance aids, data analysis software, post-flight data processing system, and aircraft structure and engine management software.
Hanwha provides the mechanical components for the operating system, and WIA provides the base. The T-50 is equipped with a Honeywell H-764G embedded global positioning / inertial navigation system and HG9550 radar altimeter. The aircraft is the first coach of the digital fly-by-wire control interface (triple redundant) function. The cockpit panels, switches and joysticks are produced by the South Korean FirsTec and Sungjin Techwin.
TA-50 mounts a General Dynamics A-50 20 mm gun internally behind the cockpit. The gun is a three-barreled version of the M61 Vulcan, with 205 rounds of link less ammunition. AIM-9 Sidewinders can be connected to each wingtip rails, and additional weapons can be mounted under wing hard points. Compatible air-ground weapons are the AGM-65 Maverick missiles, Hydra 70 rocket launchers and LOGIR, CBU-58 and Mk-20 cluster bombs, and Mk-82, -83, -84, and general purpose bombs.
FA-50 can be externally provided with Rafael's Sky Shield LITE NING ECM pods and targeting pods to further improve the fighter electronic warfare and targeting capabilities. Other improved weapon systems over TA-50 are multifunctional SPICE guidance kits, Textron Sensor Fuzed Weapon with CBU-97/105 WCMD tail kits, JDAM-ER and JDAM for more extensive air-ground operations, and AIM-120 missiles for BVR air to air operations. FA-50 has provisions for but not yet integrated, Python and Derby missiles, also manufactured by Rafael.
The JL-9 is an upgraded version of the JJ-7 trainer, which was based on the J-7 (a Chinese copy of the Russian MiG-21). The JL-9 has side air intakes, and a radar dome up front. It doesn't look a lot like a MiG-21, and is somewhat easier to fly. The JL-9 just recently entered production and is several million dollars cheaper than its competitor, the twin-engine JL-15 trainer, developing (with help from Russian and Ukrainian firms) for nearly a decade.
Italian Leonardo (formerly Finmeccanica)'s subsidiary Alenia Aermacchi (in collaboration with Russia taking benefit of the Yak/Aem-130 aircraft) Alenia Aermacchi M-346 "Master" advanced supersonic trainer (with Helmet Mounted Display). The M-346 is a subsonic with twin-engine reliability and low life-cycle costs.
Its biggest customer is Israel. Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF) will soon receive its first M-346 advanced trainer.
The M-346 has been designed using the latest “design-to-cost” and “design-to-maintain” concepts, with an avionics system modeled on those used in new-generation fighter aircraft.
The aircraft’s design for vortex lift aerodynamics, and a thrust:weight ratio of nearly 1:1, allow it to remain fully controllable even at angles of attack over 35 degrees. This is useful for simulating the capabilities of advanced 4+ generation fighters like the F/A-18 Super Hornet, Eurofighter, and Rafale. Not to mention Sukhoi’s SU-30 family, which has made a name for itself at international air shows with remarkable nose-high manoeuvres.
The development was started in 2007 by "KB SAT" (modern aviation technologies) for a light jet aerobatic aircraft takeoff weight of approximately 2,700 kg. It will be capable of performing all aerobatic maneuvers with maximum overload +10 -8. Aerodynamic configuration of the aircraft enables shapes with super-maneuverability elements that are characteristic of the generation 4 fighter 4+. The Ukrainian side is ready to provide AI-25TLSh turbofan engine to equip the trainer aircraft. There is a possibility of installation and modern Russian engines RD-1700 and AL-55I which has a thrust of 1700-1760 kgf.
Built on the normal aerodynamic scheme with high wing span of 8.4 meters with a sweep at the leading edge of -10 ° and odnokilevym plumage with tselnopovorotnym stabilizer plane SR-10 has a length of 9.59 m and a normal takeoff weight of 2400 kg (maximum take-off and maximum landing weight - 2700 kg). Estimated maximum flight speed of 900 km / h (M = 0.85), the practical ceiling - 6000 m, the practical flight range - 1200 km. Range of operating overloads - from +9 to -6, which enables it to any complex aerobatics. The control system aircraft - mechanical, with hydraulic booster. The aircraft has a built-in system diagnostics system.
Northrop Grumman subsidiary company Scaled Composites had originally planned to offer the Hawk Advanced Jet Trainer (AJT) with its partner, BAE Systems, for the next-generation T-X Advanced Pilot Training program. This option was later abandoned in favour of the design that looks somewhat similar to the T-38C Talon that it is aiming to replace, albeit it with a chined-forward fuselage and single-engined configuration.
The low-winged single-engined jet, sporting the registration number N400NT, was seen performing high-speed taxi trials at Mojave Air and Space Port in California ahead of an imminently expected first flight.
The PC-21 has a cockpit similar to a jet fighter and can perform many of the same maneuvers, but somewhat slower and for a lot less cost per flight hour. The propeller driven PC-21 has a pressurized cockpit with a bubble canopy and a modern "glass" cockpit. The aircraft can pull 8 Gs while maneuvering. For training, or use as a light bomber, the PC-21 has five hard-points, enabling the aircraft to carry a ton of bombs and missiles. The PC-21 cruises at 660 km/hr and has a max speed of 720 km/hr. Max altitude is 12,000 meters (38,000 feet).
Pilatus has signed a contract with India for 75 PC-7 MkII basic trainers in a deal worth more than $523 million to replace HPT-32 Deepak basic trainers. Pilatus charged the MoD 80.25 million Swiss Francs (Rs 515 crore) for maintenance knowhow to HAL in the contract signed on May 24, 2012. This so-called "Maintenance Transfer of Technology" (MToT) was to be formalised in a separate contract within 3 years.
The follow-on guarantee of further 36 months beyond December 2016 is not being cleared by MoD on grounds of steep price in buying any additional PC-7 Turbo Trainers. IAF is using its own resources and resorting to buying parts from the local market to maintain a fleet of 75 Pilatus trainers. PC-7 trainers were purchased by the outgoing government as Air Force favored the purchase of PC-7 Turbo Trainers and in 2012 had rejected the state-owned HAL's HHT-40 trainer on the grounds that it was overweight and overpriced.
Pilatus would only provide the design. Pilatus only assembles and integrates the trainer, using subsystems bought from global vendors. Pilatus wants HAL to negotiate individually with 29 global sub-vendors that provide the 65 replaceable items, that include Pratt & Whitney; Honeywell Aerospace; Rockwell Collins; Claverham and Ontic. For these India would require separate contracts at extra cost, over and above the 80.25 million Swiss Francs the main contract specified for MToT.
The US uses T-6 Texan II which is based on the Pilatus PC-9.
India use to use T6 Texan as a basic trainer aircraft after independence.
North American Aviation T-6 Texan was a single-engine advanced trainer aircraft used to train pilots of the United States Army Air Forces, United States Navy, Royal Air Force and other air forces of the British Commonwealth during World War II and into the 1950s. The Harvard, the name it is best known by outside of the US, remains a popular warbird aircraft.
HAL HJT-16 Kiran – first flew in 1964 and in a modified version continues to this day as the IAF’s basic trainer. To be sure, the Kiran did have a somewhat protracted development period before entering service and its Mk.2 variant was late in coming. Nevertheless, it served the IAF competently.
A looming test case will soon make clear how serious the defence ministry (MoD) is about its recently expressed intentions to end corruption in arms procurement by indigenizing defence production. Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL), the Bangalore-based public sector aircraft builder has challenged the IAF’s plan to purchase more Pilatus trainer aircraft by building a basic trainer aircraft, using its own funding.
This has led to a dramatic three-way face-off between the MoD, HAL and the IAF. The IAF insists that it needs more Pilatus trainers immediately and is pressing the MoD to exercise the options clause in the Pilatus contract for 37 more PC-7 Mark II trainers. HAL points out that Pilatus will complete delivery of the initial order for 75 trainers only in 2015. If the HTT-40 does not fly by then the options clause can be exercised then, bringing HAL’s order down to 71 aircraft.
The MoD, which is the final arbiter, is caught in a cleft stick. Last year, as reported by Business Standard (Dec 19, 2012, “MoD rejects HAL’s proposal to build basic trainer”) the MoD chose the readily available Pilatus, saying that the HTT-40 was more expensive. But with the MoD battered by allegations of corruption in overseas arms purchases, defence minister AK Antony is himself inclined to buy Indian.
When HAL-built HPT-32 trainers began crashing due to a flawed fuel system, the deaths of 19 pilots in 17 crashes over 23 years took the IAF to Pilatus for a foreign replacement, during which the HPT-32 logged 4,00,000 flight hours. That is less than one crash per year on average, a tragedy for the victims but not unusual in flight training. Raising eyebrows within the MoD is the alacrity with which the IAF grounded the HPT-32 trainer after a fatal crash in 2009. Grounding this aircraft, on which IAF rookie pilots learned to fly, created a pilot training crisis that opened the door for the purchase of the Pilatus PC-7 Mark II.
HAL is launching an indigenous programme for developing and building a basic trainer that has been dubbed the Hindustan Turbo Trainer-40 (HTT-40). Add to that an assured market of at least 200 trainer aircraft in India and there is an excellent business case for partnering India. Brazilian air force currently has between 100 and 150 Tucano turboprop trainer aircraft--manufactured by Embraer--which will need to be upgraded or replaced with a new trainer aircraft by 2018. Hence, Embraer feels that there is a scope to co-develop and co-produce a basic trainer. India and Brazil can probably spend the money equally and produce about 100-150 planes each. Embraer expects also to shortly win a contract from India to supply nine multi-mission aircraft, for surveillance, electronic jamming, communication jamming and VIP transportation. The jets will come integrated with the Airborne Early Warning and Control system that has been designed and developed by India's government-owned Defense Research & Development Organisation. Embraer received the $250 million contract for the three jets in 2008.
On the other hand, the induction of advanced jet trainers into IAF is also consuming time and money due to its lengthy process. While indigenous efforts like HAL’s Ajeet aircraft that did not materialize, India’s deal with BAE Systems for Hawk advanced jet trainers had been finalized. The 66-plane order was worth about $1.2 billion. The first 24 Hawk Mk.132 AJTs have already been delivered by BAE and the other 42 will be license-manufactured by HAL in India, who is behind on the delivery schedule.
HTT-40 (Hindustan Turbo Trainer) is an Indian basic trainer. It includes a pressurised cockpit (which allows flight at high altitudes), “zero-zero” ejection seats (which allow ejection even from a static aircraft).
They said the role of private players and MSMEs had been significant in the production of parts and assembly jigs. Almost 50% of the 4,000-odd components on HTT-40 are manufactured by private players. However note that the HTT-40 will use the PT6A-25C engine & related fuel-flow control system, Hartzell propeller, VARTA batteries, Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) are from Canada’s CMC & ELBIT Systems-supplied avionics & ECS—all these being imported, with HAL only designing & fabricating the airframe, hydraulics & accessories.
A pro-active HAL has committed Rs 40 crore of company money to develop the HTT-40, and is allocating another Rs 160 crore that will also pay for three flying prototypes. At the Aero India 2013 show in Bengaluru in February, HAL exhibited a full-scale model of the HTT-40 and an impressive team of young aeronautical designers, who were calmly confident that the HTT-40, rather than the Pilatus PC-7 Mark II was the future of basic flying training in India’s military.
The Indian Air Force (IAF) is grappling with a severe crisis in the availability of basic trainer aircraft for its cadets. The Indian Defence Ministry issued a request for proposal (RFP) to a dozen global aircraft manufacturers and the contenders included Grob’s G-120 TP, Embraer’s EMB-312 Super Tucano, Korea Aerospace Industries’ KT-1, Finmeccanica’s M-311 and Pilatus’ PC-7. The lowest bidder is the PC-21 which is a completely new aircraft design. The aircraft features a tandem-seating arrangement (student in-front/instructor behind) in a bird strike resistant glass canopy with all round vision, glass cockpit with three large colour liquid crystal displays (LCD), head-up displays (HUD), Hands on Throttle and Stick (HOTAS) controls and Zero-zero ejection seats for student and instructor.