The decision to include culture and art in the US Cold War arsenal was taken as soon as the CIA was founded in 1947. Dismayed at the appeal communism still had for many intellectuals and artists in the West, the new agency set up a division, the Propaganda Assets Inventory, which at its peak could influence more than 800 newspapers, magazines and public information organisations. The centrepiece of the CIA campaign became the Congress for Cultural Freedom, a vast jamboree of intellectuals, writers, historians, poets, and artists which was set up with CIA funds in 1950 and run by a CIA agent.
The new American art was secretly promoted under a policy known as the "long leash" - arrangements similar in some ways to the indirect CIA backing of the journal Encounter. It was recognised that Abstract Expression- ism was the kind of art that made Socialist Realism look even more stylised and more rigid and confined than it was. And that relationship was exploited in some of the exhibitions. It would be the official sponsor of touring exhibitions; its magazines would provide useful platforms for critics favourable to the new American painting.
"It was very difficult to get Congress to go along with some of the things we wanted to do - send art abroad, send symphonies abroad, publish magazines abroad. That's one of the reasons it had to be done covertly. It had to be a secret. In order to encourage openness we had to be secret." It's a problem that civilisation has faced ever since the first artist and the first millionaire or pope who supported him. And yet if it hadn't been for the multi-millionaires or the popes, we wouldn't have had the art." 'Hidden Hands' on BBC Channel 4.
ASSEMBLAGE / CONCEPTUALISM ART / INSTALLATIONS- three-dimensional artistic composition. the idea is that the 'concept' was Art and not the objects. they are designed to immerse the viewer in an artificial environment to ultimately appeal to his subjective perception. Many installations are site-specific in that they are designed to exist only in the space for which they were created.
The genre incorporates a very broad range of everyday and natural materials, which are often chosen for their evocative qualities, as well as new media such as video, sound, performance, sculpture, immersive virtual reality and the internet. The media used are more experimental and bold; they are also usually cross media and may involve sensors, which plays on the reaction to the audiences movement when looking at the installations.
STUCKISTS- they strictly focus on Painting and are against Conceptual Art. The frequency of narrative nudes (including homoerotic imagery) in Stuckism suggests Stuckist artists also have an interest in representing sexuality and homosexuality.
Material Revolution: Plastic & Concrete
The first plastic polymer, celluloid, a combination of cellulose nitrate and camphor, was developed in 1869. It was based on the natural polymer cellulose, which is present in plants. Celluloid was used to make many items including photographic film, combs, and men's shirt collars. In 1909, Leo Baekeland developed the first commercially successful synthetic plastic polymer when he patented phenol formalde-hyde resin, which he named Bakelite.
ny-Brutalism: The term does not derive from the word "brutal," but originates from the French béton brut, or "raw concrete," a term used by Le Corbusier to describe his choice of material. British architectural critic Reyner Banham adapted the term into "brutalism" (originally "New Brutalism") to identify the emerging style.
Brutalism became favoured for many government projects, high-rise housing, and shopping centres to create an architectural image that communicated strength, functionality, and frank expression of materiality, with numerous examples in Britain, France, Germany, Japan, the United States, Canada, Brazil, the Philippines, and Australia. Examples are typically massive in character (even when not large), fortress-like, with a predominance of exposed concrete construction, or in the case of the "brick brutalists," ruggedly combine detailed brickwork and concrete. Brutalism can be seen as a reaction by a younger generation to the lightness, optimism, and frivolity of some 1930s and 1940s architecture.
The best known early Brutalist architecture is the work of the Swiss architect Le Corbusier, in particular his 1952 Unité d'Habitation and the 1953 Secretariat Building (Palace of Assembly) in Chandigarh, India.
The first SLR in the 35mm format was the Soviet Union's "Sport" (Спорт). Prototyped in 1934, it was a very smart design, but it did not enter the market until 1937.
The SLR may be elegantly simple in concept, but it turned out to be fiendishly complex in practice. The SLR's shortcomings were solved one by one as optical and mechanical technology advanced and in the 1960s the SLR camera became the preferred design for many high-end camera formats.
In the 1970s, the addition of electronics established an important place in the mass market for the SLR. Since then, SLRs have become the main photographic instrument used by dedicated amateur photographers and professionals, up until 1990s.
The Mini came about because of a fuel shortage caused by the 1956 Suez Crisis. Its space-saving front-wheel-drive layout (which allowed 80% of the area of the car's floorpan to be used for passengers and luggage) influenced a generation of car-makers.
The vehicle is in some ways considered the British equivalent to its German contemporary, the Volkswagen Beetle, which enjoyed similar popularity in North America. In 1999 the Mini was voted the second most influential car of the 20th century, behind the Ford Model T.
Responding to the challenge of the Peugeot 104 (1972), the Chevette was the first British-built hatchback of this size, with Ford not responding with a similar product until the following year, with the arrival of Ford's Fiesta at the end of 1976. Chrysler UK did not launch its Chrysler Sunbeam for two years, while it was five years before British Leyland came up with the Austin Metro.
Poor labour relations, continued strikes, and the invasion of the Japanese had all taken their toll on the American domestic producers. In the end, it was announced that there would be a "joint declaration of faith" from the government and Chrysler's American parent company over the future of the UK operation. It received a state grant, with which it could fund the development of a new small car, to be engineered at Ryton, styled at Whitley, and built at Linwood.
one thing was clear: the R424 would be the final Rootes car, designed and engineered exclusively in the UK. With the details settled, development of the R424 commenced at a lightning pace: given the technical simplicity of the package and the fact that R424 comprised of almost entirely tried and tested components, there was little to slow down the design process. In fact, all of the development resources at Whitley were focused behind the new car, and everyone there was extremely keen to make the new car a success. Many, many components were lifted straight from the Avenger.
Lucian Freud's works are noted for their psychological penetration, and for their often discomfiting examination of the relationship between artist and model.
Portraits and nudes are his specialities, often observed in arresting close-up. His early work was meticulously painted, so he has sometimes been described as a “Realist”. He has a talent for capturing quiet emotion and really gorgeous flesh.
The Tree Man/The Green Man is a malevolent spirit more like "Harry Lime" in the Third Man. There is a great deal to do with the history of art even using for example Monet's background figures and bringing them to the front changing the roles so art itself becomes the drama. There is also a sense of playfulness in styles and techniques.
Steven Campbell's style of painting is figurative, with a hard linear quality to the application of paint. The colour palette is strong, with rich colours tending to be dominated by a blue-green light.
Campbell described Forsyth as 'a dark mysterious creature' although his movies are decidedly funny. The motorway flyover is a reference to Glasgow's Kingston Bridge which Forsyth often uses in his films.
Paula Rego uses loaded imagery and symbolism to create a surreal mystery for the unravelling. Unsettling tableaux of cruelty and sexual transgression permeate Paula Rego’s art. Art, she says, is 'disgusting and to be avoided'. What she is really interested in, she says, is 'the beautiful grotesque'.
In much of his work, he has drawn inspiration from the coastal communities from which he came, Port Seton in Scotland. Bellany was surrounded by the images of his family's trades of fishermen and boat builders . His paintings feature harbours and people that make a living from working the seas. Woman of the North Sea develops Bellany's interest in the sea and seafaring, which often moves into images of sexuality.
In these paintings there is a sense of firm tenderness on the part of the girls and of alternating compliance and stubborness on the part of the dog.
Although the cast changes the theme is very consistant in this series. The dog is petted, spoon fed, helped to drink and in one case very trustingly allows it's throat to be shaved. That action gives the clue if any is needed that this is not any invalid but a man in the guise of a dog.
Invalids test the love of those responisble for them to the limit. In Girl Lifting Up Her Skirt to a Dog, Paula shows the frustration and anger that lies within relationships based on any kind of dependency.
Another particularly disturbing picture is Looking Back. There is no dog in this picture just two women and one young girl, one girl on the bed is covered with a fur blanket. Paula explains that they have killed the dog.
It seems like a piece of furniture almost three metres tall, and combines drawings and sculptures, similar to old Portuguese oratories.
The sculptures represent children dressed in the Foundling Hospital uniform, placed against a background made up of two drawings.
Just as in the old oratories, this is made up by a pair of doors with two drawings. This work appears to show a new direction in Paula Rego's work, interacting between drawing and sculpture.
Paula Rego returns to the theme of the vulnerability of the youngest in these drawings and sculptures, showing their loneliness and abandonment. The children's painful situation is evoked by the way in which the artist organises the figures in the Oratório, as if it were an altar.
The Italian architect and designer, Ettore Sottsass's body of designs included furniture, jewellery, glass, lighting and office machine design. Although Memphis looked like a radical departure at the time, but it reflected Mr. Sottsass’ continuing preoccupation with the symbolic and decorative qualities of objects, visible in his earliest designs for textiles and ceramics.
A set of eleven pieces revealing forms that are light and undulating, organic and sensual, in body-tinted soft porcelain. A creation that faithfully reproduces his reflections on nature and hybridization.
Ferruccio Laviani first came into his own as a designer during the influential radical/anti-design period of the 1980s. He contributed to the famous Memphis collection, helped found the Solid Group and worked alongside other famous contemporary designers
Memphis split the design world and caused a media sensation after years of drab rationalism. Memphis Milano became the radical design movement that achieved iconic status.
De Lucchi’s designs project sensitivity to function and an appreciation for crafts and simplicity. His wooden furniture is handmade, signed and dated. His hanging lamps, such as the Acquatinta lamp, project the simple beauty of hand blown glass. Often incorporating simple light bulbs as the light source, he will instead enhance the metal design of the base and stem. Well known the US for the Tolomeo lamp in metal, his exceptional lamps portray a highly- desired casual, low key and versatile quality.
Six moveable cylinders form a luminaire with great impact and a strong personality. Diffusers are of white opal handblown glass and the structure is made of steel.
It is a product designed in 1987, awarded the prestigious Golden Compass award in 1989 and now with the passing years, a true symbol of modern design thanks to its simple lines and basic but clean and attractive style.
The lamp Ptolemy, Designed by Michele De Lucchi and Giancarlo Fassina for ArtemisIs characterized by a cantilevered arms in polished aluminum and a convenient rotating reflector in all directions while matte anodized aluminum joints and supports are polished aluminum.
'sfera' resides in the alchemy of skilled layering. Its design is influenced by the first injection of air a glass-blower makes into a mass of molten glass, the spherical globe imprisoning and shielding within it a variation on the form of a baccarat decanter.
Switched on, the bulb dissolves inside the vessel as the contained becomes the containing, in a two-way exchange between matte and glossy finishes. as a ceiling, floor or table lamp, the shadows of 'sfera' mingle and produce a brilliantly refracted light.
There are the ones who see him as a professional critic or a design entertainer, but there are also those who almost worship him as a genius. Most people call him a designer, but he calls himself a “3-D philosopher.”
After completing several houses in the idiom of Mies and Breuer, Johnson joined Mies van der Rohe as the New York associate architect for the 39-story Seagram Building (1956). Johnson was pivotal in steering the commission towards Mies, working with Phyllis Lambert, the daughter of the CEO of Seagram. This collaboration of architects and client resulted in the bronze-and-glass tower on Park Avenue.
Completing the Seagram Building with Mies also decisively marked a shift in Johnson's career. After this accomplishment, Johnson's practice grew as projects came in from the public realm, including coordinating the master plan of Lincoln Center and designing that complex's New York State Theater. Meanwhile, Johnson began to grow bored with the orthodoxies of the International Style he had championed.
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Meier makes use of the slight slope as well as the quiet street as he had previously done with more grandiose orientation devices such as oceans, lakes and extreme slopes. In doing so, he attempts to simplify the program and the home's placement on the site. As a result of Meier's placement of the house (at the top of the slope, with most windows and areas of activity facing away from the street, while providing entering visitors a relatively simple façade) the project ends up working like many of his more successful residential designs, which afford the home-owners privacy as well as expansive views.
It was designed by Renzo Piano, Richard Rogers and Gianfranco Franchini. Piano and Franchini were Italian while Richard Rogers was a British architect. The truth was that a competition was held and they awarded them the accolade of architecture design competition. The Stravinsky Fountain which is nearby is featuring 16 fanciful and magical water spraying structures was designed by Niki de Saint Phalle and Jean Tinguely.
National Geographic described the reaction to the design as "love at second sight." An article in Le Figaro declared "Paris has its own monster, just like the one in Loch Ness." Many critics have abhorred it for its brutish ugliness. But two decades later, while reporting on Rogers' winning the Pritzker Prize in 2007, The New York Times noted that the design of the Centre "turned the architecture world upside down" and that "Mr. Rogers earned a reputation as a high-tech iconoclast with the completion of the 1977 Pompidou Centre, with its exposed skeleton of brightly coloured tubes for mechanical systems. There are no clean lines here, no such sweeping elegance. Instead there seems to be a tangle of pipes, lifts, cranes revealing the services of the building on the exterior.
(PMMA is an economical alternative to polycarbonate (PC) when extreme strength is not necessary. Additionally, PMMA does not contain the potentially harmful bisphenol-A subunits found in polycarbonate. It is often preferred because of its moderate properties, easy handling and processing, and low cost, but behaves in a brittle manner when loaded, especially under an impact force, and is more prone to scratching compared to conventional inorganic glass.)
Acrylic paint essentially consists of PMMA suspended in water; however since PMMA is hydrophobic, a substance with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups needs to be added to facilitate the suspension.
From approximately the 1960s onward, sculptors and glass artists such as Leroy Lamis began using acrylics, especially taking advantage of the material's flexibility, light weight, cost and its capacity to refract and filter light.
Modern furniture makers, especially in the 1960s and 1970s, seeking to give their products a space age aesthetic, incorporated Lucite and other PMMA products into their designs, especially office chairs.
Many other products (for example, guitars) are sometimes made with acrylic glass to make the commonly opaque objects translucent.
There is a difficulty level in working with translucent plastic resins. Both Acrylic resin and Clear Polycarbonate have high melt points. And equally both Acrylic and Polycarbonate resins have their own specialized process which can get tricky if not handled by a seasoned professional.
Polycarbonate has a unique blend of flexibility while maintaining strength and optical clarity. It is generally used as an optical lens due to it’s strength yet flexibility, especially in products for safety or that need to stand up to hard daily usage. Its strength is why it’s often used for safety applications and bullet proof windows. Polycarbonate’s flexibility makes it a natural choice for sunglasses and eyeglasses because Polycarbonate will bend farther than any other plastic of the same thickness.
High optical transparency makes clear Polycarbonate a natural choice for Light pipes, light guides and optical lenses. The impact resistance and heat resistance qualities make Polycarbonate especially favorable to consumer and medical applications.
In addition to the glass-like optical qualities of acrylic, the material is also noted for its resistance to ultraviolet and fluorescent lighting effects, excellent weatherability and resistance to scratching. Several grades are suitable for food contact use, and because it is odorless and tasteless, it is used in applications such as refrigerator drawers and food storage containers. These molding compounds resist water, alkaline solutions, and weak acids but are dissolved by most organic solvents such as strong hydrocarbons, esters and ketones.
Prototype molders generally do not favor Clear Polycarbonate due to its high mold temperatures. In order to create desirable parts the temperature has to remain at a constant in order to flow properly and overcome it’s inherent nature. Which in rapid injection molding is a level of difficulty that often cannot be turned into an efficient enough process for quick turn around parts.
Acrylics have excellent transparency, optical clarity and hardness that are all desirable qualities in lenses, prisms, and other light guiding optical applications. Acrylic is often used instead of glass due to Acrylic’s ability to refract light and filter the light according to a design based upon Total Reflection Principle and the Angle of Incidence.
The Acrylic family of resins are very heat resistant which make it a somewhat difficult plastic to run for desirable applications. Though when run correctly, Acrylic plastic properties are attractive to design engineers due to Acrylic’s very versatile nature and a practical choice for decorative plastic manufacturing.
Acrylic is somewhat notch sensitive, so sharp edges should be avoided. Wherever possible, outside and inside corners should include a radius to minimize this notch sensitivity. The metal inserts used in insert molding should avoid sharp corners and edges to minimize the notch sensitivity of this material.
Undercuts or entrapments should be avoided since they would break or fracture during part ejection. When necessary for part function, these features need to be incorporated through the use of slides in the mould.
In optical components refraction and reflection play major roles in the dispersion of light. Using materials with different refractive levels allows a designer to manipulate light using Total Reflection Principle (T.I.R.).
T.I.R. is responsible for the phenomenon that occurs when light bounces off water droplets, better known as Rainbows. T.I.R plays a part in this dispersion of light in a prism creating a sparkle of light. Clear plastic refracts light differently than glass; it separates the colors of the spectrum clearer.
Because of the multi-faceted nature of plastics like Acrylic and Polycarbonate (much like a diamond) the reflective qualities make clear plastics use a natural choice in prism lighting design. In Diamonds: the cut determines the direction of the sparkle, the sharper the cut the more sparkle. The Angle of Incidence is where the Diamond meets air. The Angle of Incidence is why the light seems to bounce off the diamond.
Acrylics and Polycarbonates are used due to high clarity properties; which reduces (attenuation) the gradual loss of intensity of light. The plastic “pipe” is designed in such a way that the light guided through it reflects back upon itself throughout the whole of the part. This inward reflection keeps the light “bouncing” back upon itself moving evenly towards the intended area of the design.
Previous to Light pipes / light guides, LED lighting was exclusively used. This was a rather resource intensive task as each light had to be placed behind the object being back lit. Today the use of Light pipes and light guides is not only cost effective but practical because the lighting is more consistent through out the device that needs lighting; and can be used to light up several devices per Light pipe / light guide. Only a few LED’s need to be used and the Light pipe / light guide can efficiently direct the light to the correct device without any loss of intensity.
Another important property of light pipes and light guides is the lack of heat found in other lighting devices.