"If the Earth kills you because you cannot survive against the elements--you are not going to do much against the human enemy."
The difference between soldier and a mass murderer: Mass Murderers feel they have no prospects for the future and were influenced by radical ideology. All of them see their victims as nothing more than fodder to absorb their rage and think mass murder would give their lives meaning. They studied or idolized previous mass killers.
Motivation and self-discipline are important in the military, where making mistakes can be fatal. There are currently 34 million Americans of prime military age (17-24). But because of bad lifestyle choices, only 28% of them (9.5 million) are physically eligible for service. Over a third of the people of military age are considered obese. Most soldiers, especially those in jobs requiring a lot of physical activity have closer to 15% body fat (22% for women). Each year the armed forces have to recruit 150,000 new troops. Male recruits could not have a body fat percentage higher than 24% (it used to be 26%) and for females was 30% (it used to be 32%). Most men with 24% (and women with 30%) body fat would appear chubby. This is not just an American problem. All Western nations (including Japan and South Korea) have similar problems with recruiting and maintaining training standards after recruit training. Even China is having the problem
An army marches on its stomach." Napoleon Bonaparte. It means that for an army to be effective, it relies on good and plentiful food. Therefore, target to cut off food supplies (as the Russians did both in the 19th and 20th centuries against the French and Nazis) and the enemy will crumble.
The Israeli war in Lebanon in 2006, which mostly relied on its vastly superior air power, did not give it the results it expected. But even this very short war cost Israel $1.6 billion and shaved off about 1% from its annual economic growth.
PLA outposts has been equipped with oxygen stations and set-up high-pressure oxygen (for troops to recover stamina, reduce breathing difficulties and altitude stress), which are specially designed portable barracks for its troops stationed in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to boost combat capability in the high-altitude ranges where oxygen levels are low. PLA has also been equipping Tibetan military bases with portable barracks, specifically designed for plateau areas. The barracks’ design and material make them sturdy, moisture-proof and cold-resistant, even keep the room temperature at 15 degrees Celsius even during bad snow storms.
Statistical analysis by the US Army of rifle engagements in WW II, Korea and Vietnam revealed that 90% of them were at ranges less than 300 metres and 70% at 200 metres and less. Therefore, the emphasis on long-range accuracy of 300-800 metres was found somewhat redundant. The propensity to consume ammunition reached the astounding rate of 50,000 rounds per kill in the Korean War. This obviously means that the soldier now needs to carry greater quantities of ammunition.
"God and a soldier all people adore in time of war, but not before; And when war is over and all things are righted, God is neglected and an old soldier forgotten."
Special Forces and Drug Abuse: The military and Special Forces are pushed to the limit during intensive training programs for maximum combat efficiency. However, there are only few that meet Special Forces requirement. Extended deployments, psychologically exhausted, troubled family life, and problems related to PTSD, all factor into why substance abuse is having a disproportionate effect on Special Forces operators. While programs and money has been budgeted to address these problems, they will only work if Special Forces are not used as regular Army or member must be allowed back in the unit after successfully completing rehab, instead of being pensioned off to some remote part of the military bureaucracy until he can be discharged. Within Special Forces subculture, members protect and care for one another. Special Forces units will cover for a team member who battles substance abuse by saying "He's a good operator, and the unit can't afford to lose him." Instead of receiving the help they need, operators suffering from substance abuse are often shuffled around until they can be honorably discharged. However, upon being discharged, the support group which they had while in service disappears.
In India, since 2014, according to a defence ministry submission in Parliament, 310 officers have committed suicide and 11 cases of fratricide were reported in this period.
Italian ‘Ndrangheta mafia is peddling tramadol tablets for ISIS and Boko Haram fighters. They end up in the hands of the desperate in Gaza, the prostitutes in Amman, and child laborers in Turkey. In Europe and North Africa, peddling the pills, which have a street value of around $5 a piece, is fast becoming one of the Calabrian ‘Ndrangheta crime syndicate’s most successful enterprises. Most of the illegal goods are hidden in shipments of pineapples, frozen fish and coconut milk, which often are rushed through because of their shorter shelf life.
Nazi Germany rejected recreational drugs but Pervitin (a methamphetamine-based drug) was manufactured and distributed among its armed forces to keep them alert and motivated. To ensure that millions of German housewives on the home front were not left out, the Nazis even developed chocolates containing the drug. Hitler himself was growing dependence on a pain-killing narcotic injection drug called “Eukodal”.
Defence Ministry of India has cleared a decade-long proposal to create 3 new military institutions involving the Army, Navy and Air Force for special tasks: (1) The Armed Forces Special Operations Division; (2) The Defence Cyber Agency; (3) The Defence Space Agency.
The Indian Air Force's Garud commandos will be training in "electronic warfare" for a week with Israeli Air Force's elite units - Unit 5101 (more commonly referred to as the Shaldag Commando unit) who undergo the longest training phase of any unit in the IDF, lasting 22 months, and training has a heavy emphasis on navigation.
Six 122 mm Chinese howitzers of the Pakistani battery were creating trouble for Indian infantry brigades. Indian Army’s special-forces unit, 9 Parachute Regiment, was sent 15-to-20 kilometres deep behind Pakistan lines, crossing neck-deep water of the Poonch river to reach Mandhol, to destroyed its artillery guns. After locating the guns, the party split into six groups, one to take down each target. In a fierce battle with the enemy, we blew up all its guns with 3-to-5 kg timer explosives powered by pencil cells and put inside the barrels. Nearly 60 Pakistani troops were killed and those who fled their posts were court martialled. This first raid behind the enemy lines, which the future leaders of the army read about in military academies, forced the Pakistan army to raise a second line of defence for its artillery, changing its military doctrine. One of the founders of the Indian special forces, Colonel Pathak said most difficult task was to return safely with 20 wounded soldiers and the bodies of two fallen soldiers. After the war, even the military delegation from Pakistan praised the professionalism of the Indian troops who had carried out the operation. The success of 9 Para was recognised only when the Pakistan Army delegation narrated after the ceasefire what damage the unit had done at Mandhol.
U.S. SEAL Team 6 was created in the 1980s as an elite of the elite commando unit. The United States currently has about 3,500 SEALs, divided among eight SEAL Teams (each with about 120 SEALs and about 200 support personnel), plus DEVGRU (the official designation for SEAL Team 6). Most SEAL Teams are trained for operations worldwide, while Team 3 and 10 specialize in Middle Eastern operations. It was also confirmed that there is one special espionage unit of about a hundred SEALs, some of them female.
U.S. Infantry Squad (when fighting with air-support or artillery cover) will have 12 soldier during peacetime (15 soldiers only during wartime i.e. 4 X fire teams):- The All Rifle Squad consists of 3 x Fire Teams + 1 x Squad Leader, 1 x Asst. Squad Leader who is the Navigator, 1 x NEW Systems Operator (excluding Medic and Driver). The Army has an additional squad in each platoon, called the Infantry Weapons Squad. This squad has teams dedicated to the machine gun and man-portable missile/rocket support.
Each Fire Team consists of 4 x Riflemen (includes 1 x Team Leader, 1 x Automatic Gunner,1 x Light Machine Gunner, 1 x Scout-Sniper or Riflemen for "close combat" defence). 2 x (a Asst. Automatic Gunner and a Riflemen) are also Ammo carriers. Army Squad uses a dedicated high explosive (HE) Grenadier in place of an Asst. Automatic Gunner. One member in each Squad will also be “designated sharpshooter” carrying a Limited Long-Range Sniper or Marksman Rifle (with suppressor). Sufficient Man-Portable rocket launcher (anti-armor, anti-personnel) is given with each Squad (also 1 ISR Mini Drone shared amongst the 3 teams). The Fire Team Leader typically carries the grenade launcher slung under his rifle.
The Army companies can get mortar (mortarman = indirect fire infantryman), heavy machine gun, and man-portable missile/rocket support from the Weapons Company.
While all U.S. Marines train for amphibious warfare, few soldiers do. Instead, most soldiers pick or are assigned a terrain or warfare specialty such as airborne, Ranger, mountain, or mechanized infantry.
7.62x51 ammo (military) = Winchester 308 round (civilians)
The MultiCam pattern, which was used on most uniforms for soldiers deployed to Iraq in 2010, is privately owned by a company called Crye Precision and is said to be useful for concealment in a variety of environments and terrains, including urban, desert and green settings.
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal 2014 called on the Pentagon to put an end to the services branding their ranks with unique camouflage uniforms.
In addition to Crye, the other finalists in the Army's Phase IV camouflage testing included ADS Inc., teamed with Hyperstealth, Inc.; Brookwood Companies Inc.; and Kryptek Inc.
Johannes Haller, a qualified master weaver from Europe, invented the new khaki dye from the bark of semicarpus tree at Basel Mission’s weaving establishment in Balmatta in 1851, reveals Jaiprakash Raghavaiah’s doctoral work (‘Basel Mission industries in Malabar and South Canara: 1834-1914’) and reports of German evangelical mission in the department of archives, Karnataka Theological College (KTC), Balmatta.
In 1844, Basal Mission set up a weaving factory staffed by lower caste Christian converts on land donated by Collector H M Blair at Balmatta. Initially the fabrics produced were of poor quality, the documents reveal. The Industrial Commission set up in 1846 to help missionary industrial activities deputed a trained weaving specialist, Johnnes Haller. Archives say that with his arrival, the weaving industry ‘developed by leaps and bounds’. In 1851, he installed a dye house.
How khaki came to be adopted as police and army uniform in many countries is fascinating. British-Indian Army Commander-in-Chief Lord Roberts, during his visit to the weaving factory, was pleased with the colour. He describes khaki as an ‘attractive uniform’ in Rodney Atwood’s The Life of Field Marshal Lord Roberts and introduced it as the everyday uniform of the British Army the world over.
The WPMS is designed using a microcontroller. It is interfaced with wireless communication and global positioning system (GPS) modules. The acquired signals are sent in real-time at a speed of 250samples/second, digitised at 12-bit resolution and transmitted wirelessly along with the geo-location of the wearer. It monitors and issues real-time signals pertaining to electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram, body temperature, blood pressure, galvanic skin response and heart rate of each soldier.
The galvanic skin response (GSR) detects a change in the electrical properties of the skin in response to stress or anxiety; and can be measured either by recording the electrical resistance of the skin or through weak currents generated by the body in such circumstances. The photoplethysmogram (PPG) non-invasively screens and relays in real-time valuable information about the performance of each soldier's cardiovascular system. It detects anomalies by illuminating the skin with a light from a light-emitting diode (LED) and then measuring the amount of light either transmitted or reflected to a photodiode attached to the vest.
Offensive operations have 4 types:
- (deploy) movement to (enemy) contact,
- Attacking and widening; and securing the Flanks
- Seizing, exploitation and disrupt, and
- Pursuit to cut-off.
Attack tactic: The enemy MUST be pinned down. Small units MUST fire and move perfectly. This is Extremely important. If not conducted correctly, men will get cutoff and destroyed and the problem is then compounded when other men stop firing to try to recover casualties. Then they also get killed in many cases and combat effectiveness of the entire unit is in danger of being lost.
Counter-attack tactic: (Grab them by the belt buckle) We show very high determination. The closer we hug the enemy forces, the less effective the enemy artillery firepower becomes and make air support impracticable. We destroy combat strength and force them to withdraw.