Evolutionary chain between the two particular kinds of creatures, morphological similarities imply a biogenetic relationship and ancestry. The fossil record ''suggests that our ancestry is better thought of as a bush, with the branches representing a number of bipedal species that evolved along different evolutionary lines. Physical evolution is glacially slow; we humans share 98.4 percent of our genetic material with chimpanzees.'' The "missing link" refers to something intermediate between apes and humans: either apes with some human features, or humans with primitive features. These could be either direct human ancestors, or just more closely related to us than to modern apes.
The Lower Paleolithic period, also known as the Early Stone Age, is currently believed to have lasted from between about 2.7 million to 200,000 years ago. The Lower Paleolithic begins when the first known stone tool manufacture occurred, about 2.7 million years ago, called the Oldowan tradition. The earliest stone tools have been discovered at Gona and Bouri in Ethiopia, and (a little later) Lokalalei in Kenya. Stone tools of the Paleolithic include Acheulean handaxes and cleavers; these suggest that most humans of the period were scavengers rather than hunters.
The Lower Paleolithic saw the rise of Hominin ancestors of human beings, including Australopithecus, Homo habilis (Australopithecines africanus/ Eoanthropus), Homo erectus, Australopithaecus anamensis and Homo ergaster. Several of Homo erectus (Pithecanthropus) have been known by local names like Java Man, Heidelberg Man or Peking Man and they were very tall. Cro-Magnon, Neanderthal (still unclassified), and Swanscombe were different races that apparently died out some 100,000 years ago. These hominid fossils, (also Lucy and Java Man), have never been claimed to be the "missing link" in the sense of a common ancestor of apes and humans. They have been, and still are, considered to be ancestors or close relatives of modern humans.
Species usually undergo change when their populations become isolated, but the large, highly mobile human populations today ''have become one giant global gene pool''; also, they are operating ''under the ameliorating influence of cultural evolution,'' which has enabled people to be generally adaptable to new conditions.
The Beginning of Civilization
Prior to 5500 years ago there were no civilizations but for 10,000 odd years before the Paleolithic hunters living in caves of Kurdistan and Caspian Coast slowly began to form small nomadic villages. With the introduction of irrigation by Neolithic farmers changed the social system from loose tribal family groups to complex city societies with powerful centralized leadership (5850 BCE, elements of Samara culture begins). Accounting, writing, complex religious practices began and the Iranian Plateau (Persian/Ariana) provided a continuous snow free route between Europe, Mediterranean and Egypt, India and China. The fertile alluvial plain around Tigris and Euphrates rivers are considered as one of the five cradle of human civilization.
The rise of civilizations and formation of urban areas took place over the “wide” (Babylonia) area called Tall-e Malyan with its main city known as Anšan founded in c.5000 BCE. The first Sumer pre-dynastic settlement of Eridu appeared in the Ubaid period (late 6th millennium BC) through the Uruk period (4th millennium BC) and the Dynastic periods (3rd millennium BC) until the rise of Babylon in the early 2nd millennium BC (with the rise of the Akkadian Empire). The Sumerians who came possibly from Indus Valley became one of the Babylonians and established the first large city civilization in older/early Mesopotamia (in Ur). Other tribes in Mesopotamia were Akkadians or Semitic tribes, Elamites (origin southwest Iran but unclear), Hittites (and Luwian) who came into Anatolia and borrowed heavily from the pre-existing Hattian & Assyrian (Syrian, Aramaic) tribe's cultures, (Hurrian/Carrhae) and Urartu . The Semitic tribes were from Arabic Desert and Central Asia pushing towards Mesopotamia. As cities and trade grew there were bloody battles for supremacy among themselves and other new waves of nomadic mountain tribes. The control of water upstream was important for irrigation and downstream for trade, metal and horses for military and slaves provided workforce. The wheel was invented around here.
The first empires were in older/early Mesopotamia (Syria & Arabia), Egypt to Indus Valley. (Although they did use some writing with pictographic symbols at Mohenjo-daro, they were not extensive nor alphabetic nor have they been deciphered yet, and the Indo-European Sanskrit which did develop in India is probably quite different. Nevertheless the Harappan civilization of the Indus Valley in what is now Pakistan did borrow many ideas from Mesopotamia and is considered the third civilization to develop.) The survival in Baluchistan up to the present day of a Dravidian language, Brhui, so far from what is now the main Dravidian area in Southern India, makes it reasonable to conclude that before the arrival of the Aryans Dravidian was spoken over a much wider area, and the suggestion has naturally been made that the inhabitants of the Indus cities spoke a Dravidian language. 10th and 9th BC Indo-Iranian speaking agricultural tribes came across the Iranian plateau (Persian/Ariana) from Eastern Ukraine and Southern Russian. They were Aryans belonging to a branch of Indo-Europeans from the ice and snow destroyed place beyond the North Caucasus who migrated into Central Asia (Iran and India)... (They are also known as the "Kennewick Man" of America & Tarim Basin in China....and note this is before the Turks came to China). There is a strong suggestion that the wooden wheel was invented in Ukraine by them. (They fought and traded with the Greek Empire that formed after two hundred years).
Sumerian is the first know language script which is called cuneiform, created in 34th century BC, and it was simplified, adapted and refined into other languages. Many signs in the scripts were polyvalent, having syllabic, phonetic and logographic meanings which resemble classic Japanese, written in a Chinese derived script. It was an early system of written expression using a system of pictographs on clay tablets which was burned when they want it to be permanent. Later the letters became more abstract and the script phonological, as the pictographs began to lose their original function and various meaning were given depending on the context. This process was parallel and not independent of Egyptian hieroglyphic orthography. the predominant Semitic dialect: the Akkadian language, reflecting use of akkadu ("in the language of Akkad") in the Old Babylonian period to denote the Semitic version of a Sumerian text.
King Hammurabi of Babylon conquers Elam in 1764 B.C., founded the “Babylonia” and he also conquers Ashur ending the first Assyrian empire in c. 1760 B.C. The New Kingdom or the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. The New Kingdom (1570–1070 BC) followed the Second Intermediate Period and was succeeded by the Third Intermediate Period. It was Egypt’s most prosperous time and marked the zenith of its power. The first great Ancient Kings around the region were: the Egyptian Ramses X (1107-1098), the Assyrian Tiglath-pileser I (1115-1076) and the Babylonian (Mât Akkadî ) Enlil-nadin-apli (1104-1100). (Harran - an ancient city in Mesopotamia & the provincial capital of the Assyrian empire, famous for a temple of the Moon god Sin and later for defeating the Roman general Crassus in 53 BCE).
Cyrus the Great who is described as "king of Anšan" was a great emperor of the Achaemenian Emperor (6th to 4th BC) and the heartland province was known as Pars/Fars/Parsa (but the country as a whole under Darius I of Persia was called Aryanam). The first half of the sixth century, Babylon was ruled by king Nebuchadnezzar (605-562). This was the age of Babylonian glory and splendour.
(Just for comparison - around 479 B.C. Confucius the great Chinese philosopher died. Confucianism doesn’t teach a belief in a deity or the existence of life after death but places emphasis on respect for ancestors, obeying government rules and stresses moral and political ideas)
The Persian Empire was around 500 BC, around Tigris and Euphrates rivers (also called "neo-Babylonian Empire”). (like the famous 12th century Mongalian (not Chinese) tribal conqurer Temüjin aka Chingis Khan who also was fatherless & also had a humbling childhood) Cyrus the Great was called Cyrus II of Persia (Cyrus was named from Kuros, the sun) and he is regarded as one of the most important personalities in the history of the human civilization. He was the founder of the Persian Empire under the Achaemenid dynasty. It was under his own rule that the empire embraced all previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly, and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much of Central Asia, from Egypt and the Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east, to create the largest empire the world had yet seen. Cyrus built his empire by fighting and conquering first the Median Empire then Lydian Empire and the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Cyrus left an everlasting legacy on the art of leadership and decision-making and he attributed his success to "Diversity in counsel, unity in command". Cyrus the Great respected the customs and religions of the lands he conquered. It is said that, in universal history the role of the Achaemenid empire founded by Cyrus lies in its very successful model for centralized administration and establishing a government working to the advantage and profit of its subjects. he let women work and the defeted were not turned into slaves (also imported ideas and skilled people) and the slave workers got paid. Cyrus also left a lasting legacy on Jewish religion (after Nebuchadnezzar II destroyed Jerusalem & through his Edict of Restoration), human rights, politics, and military strategy, as well as on both Eastern and Western civilizations. In the Bible, he is known as simply Koresh, in the Torah as a saint and possibly mentioned in the Quran under the title "Dhul-Qarnayn". Cyrus was distinguished equally as a statesman and as a soldier. By pursuing a policy of generosity instead of repression, and by favoring local religions, he was able to make his newly conquered subjects into enthusiastic supporters. Cyrus met his fate in a fierce battle with the Massagetae (ruler was a woman called Tomyris), a tribe from the southern deserts of Kharesm and Kizilhoum in the southernmost portion of the steppe regions of modern-day Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, following the advice of Croesus to attack them in their own territory. The Massagetae were related to the Scytho-Siberian who later became Huns (Turkic people who contributed to the fall of the Romans). They fought well both on horseback and on foot. They are also related to Getae; or Vlachs/Dacians who were also known as "daoi" which could be explained with a possible Phrygian cognate "daos" meaning "wolf".
(note: the Greek dictatorships and Greek democratic nations were rising in power and united against their common enemy the Persians. they regarded everyone who were not Geek, even if admirable, to be termed as "barbarians" ... and this is the root of the east - west world divide)
The rivalry between Persia and Athens led to a 30-year war known as the Greco-Persian Wars (several Greek city-states and the Persian Empire that started in 499 BC and lasted until 448 BC). Mardonius's Campaign, Xerxes who was Darius's son, who wouldn't take no for an answer, brought a bigger army than his father ever had, and still lost battle after battle to the sturdy Greeks. Battle of Marathon was a historic battle, the first of four great Greek victories. this was also the first time Athenian slaves were freed so that they could fight for the Athenian cause. Badly outnumbered, the Greeks charged and drove the invading Persians from the field of battle. Battle of Thermopylae, this is the famous battle of the Spartans' heroic last stand. Three hundred Spartans held off thousands of Persians at the tiny mountain pass near Thermopylae until the rest of the Greek army could safely retreat. Battle of Salamis was the big naval battle. Xerxes brought twice as many ships as the Greeks had, but he still lost, thanks to Greek smarts and superior seamanship. Battle of Plataea was the last straw for Persia. Athenians and Spartans fought side by side, driving the Persians from the Greek shores forever. Later to avoiding fighting the Greeks themselves, the Persians instead attempted to set Athens against Sparta, regularly bribing politicians to achieve their aims. In this way, they ensured that the Greeks remained distracted by internal conflicts, and were unable to turn their attentions to Persia. By 330 BC Persian Empire declined and by 323 BC the Greeks under the Macedonian king Alexander III who is popularly known as Alexander the Great (Arsacids/Hellenistic means: “friend of the Greeks”) began to conquer and spread its influence throughout the region. Alexander, viewied himself as the legitimate Achaemenid successor to Darius and he adopted Persian dress and mannerisms, which soon the Greeks began to view as decadent and autocratic. Three hundred years later, about 117 AD, the Romans Empire became a force to reckon with).
The Stone age
The earliest known permanent settlements in the Levant were established by the Natufian culture.
The Bronze age
The first cities started developing in southern Mesopotamia during the 4th millennium BC. With these ties of religion began to replace ties of kinship as the basis for society. Each city had a patron god, worshipped in a massive central temple called a ziggurat, and was ruled by a priest-king (ishakku). Society became more segmented and specialized and capable of coordinated projects like irrigation and warfare.
Along with cities came a number of advances in technology. By around the 31st century BC, writing, the wheel, and other such innovations had been introduced. By now the Sumerian Peoples of south Mesopotamia were all organized into a variety of independent City-states, such as Ur and Uruk, which by around 26th century BC had begun to coalesce into larger political units. By accommodating the conquered people's gods, religion became more polytheistic and government became somewhat more secular; the title of lugal, big man, appears along side the earlier religious titles, although his primary duty is still the worship of the state gods.
This process came to its natural conclusion with the development of the first empires around the 24th century BC. A people called the Akkadians invaded the valley under Sargon I and established their supremacy over the Sumerians. They were followed by the empires of Ur during the 21st and 2nd centuries BC and the Old Kingdom of Babylonia during the 17th and 18th centuries BC
Parallel developments were meanwhile occurring in Egypt, which by the 32nd century BC had been unified to form the Old Kingdom of Egypt, and amongst the peoples of the Indus Valley in north-western India. All of these civilizations lie in fertile river valleys where agriculture is relatively easy once dams and irrigation are constructed to control the flood waters.
This started to change around the end of the third millennium as cities started to spread to the nearby hilly country: among the Assyrians in north Mesopotamia, the Canaanites in Syria-Palestine, to the Minoans in Crete, and to the Hittites in eastern Anatolia. Around this same time various immigrants, such as the Hittites and Achaeans, started appearing around the peripheries of civilization.
These groups are associated with the appearance of the light two-wheeled war chariot and typically with Indo-European languages. Horses and chariots require a lot of time and upkeep, so their use was mainly confined to a small nobility. These are the "heroic" societies familiar to us from epics like the Iliad and the Ramayana.
Around the 17th and 16th centuries BC most of the older centres had been overrun. Babylonia was conquered by the Kassites, and the civilization of the Indus Valley was annihilated by the Indo-Aryans. Their kin, the Mitanni, subjugated Assyria and for a time menaced the Hittite kingdom, but were defeated by the two around the middle of the 14th. Various Achaean kingdoms developed in Greece, most notably that of Mycenae, and by the 15th century BC were dominant over the older Minoan cities. And the Semitic Hyksos used the new technologies to occupy Egypt, but were expelled, leaving the empire of the New Kingdom to develop in their wake.
In the 13th century BC all of these powers suddenly collapsed. Cities all around the eastern Mediterranean were sacked within a span of a few decades by assorted raiders. The Achaean kingdoms disappeared, and the Hittite empire was destroyed. Egypt repelled its attackers with only a major effort, and over the next century shrank to its territorial core, its central authority permanently weakened. Only Assyria escaped significant damage.
The Iron age
The destruction at the end of the bronze age left a number of tiny kingdoms and City-states behind. A few Hittite centres remained in northern Syria, along with some Canaanite (Phoenician) ports that escaped destruction and now developed into great commercial powers. Southern Palestine initially fell to the Philistines, but by the 11th century BC had been conquered by the Hebrews. And most of the interior, as well as Babylonia, was overrun by Aramaeans.
In this dark period a number of technological innovations spread, most notably iron working and the alphabet, developed by the Canaanites around the 16th century BC. Also around this time, the Hebrew religion developed into the first major Monotheism, Judaism, which is still practiced today.
During the 9th century BC the Assyrians began to reassert themselves against the incursions of the Aramaeans, and over the next few centuries developed into a powerful and well-organised empire. Their armies were among the first to employ cavalry, which took the place of chariots, and had a reputation for both prowess and brutality. At their height, the Assyrians dominated all of Syria-Palestine, Egypt, and Babylonia. However, the empire began to collapse toward the end of the 7th century BC, and was obliterated by an alliance between a resurgent New Kingdom of Babylonia and the Iranian Medes.
The subsequent balance of power was short-lived, though. In the 550s BC the Persians revolted against the Medes and gained control of their empire, and over the next few decades annexed to it the realms of Lydia in Anatolia, Babylonia, and Egypt, as well as consolidating their control over the Iranian plateau nearly as far as India. This vast kingdom was divided up into various satrapies and governed roughly according to the Assyrian model, but with a far lighter hand. Around this time Zoroastrianism became the predominant religion in Persia.
In the second millennium B.C, during the bronze age, western Mongolia was under the influence of the Karasuk culture. Deer stones and the omnipresent keregsürens (small kurgans) probably are from this era; other theories date the deer stones as 7th or 8th centuries BCE. A vast iron-age burial complex from the 5th-3rd century, later also used by the Xiongnu, has been unearthed near Ulaangom.
Xiongnu confederation & Yuezhi:
The Xiongnu/Xiongnu (old: Hsiung-nu) was initially a collection of small tribes (ancestors of Turkic and Mongol and Hungarian) of Siberian branch (Samoyeds) of alleged Mongolian race residing in the barren area of Mongolian highlands. They lived on the steppes north of China between the 3rd century and the 460s. in total their territories included modern day Mongolia, southern Siberia, western Manchuria, and the modern Chinese provinces of Inner Mongolia, Gansu, and Xinjiang. (if some of them were hun tribes then it makes them the most important of the tribes). the largest tribe were the Tuoba/ Tabgach (later the Chinese name Yuan was adopted by some). During Emperor Modu aka Bordur reign (208-175 BCE), the Xiongnu were at the zenith of their might. They were considered so dangerous and disruptive that the Qin Dynasty ordered the construction of the Great Wall to protect China from Xiongnu attacks.
Tengriism/Tengrianism/Tengricilik which was heavily influence by the Alevi belief system, was the major belief of Xiongnu, Bulgar, Hungarian and Turkic peoples in ancient times. It focuses around the sky deity Tengri/Tangra/Tanrı and incorporates elements of shamanism, animism, totemism and ancestor worship. "Khukh" and "Tengri" literally mean "blue" and "sky" in Mongolian language and modern Mongolians still pray to "Munkh Khukh Tengri" ("Eternal Blue Sky"). the Turkish "Gök" and "Tanrı" mean the same as and sound very similar to the Mongolian "khukh" (blue) and "Tengri" (sky), respectively. Tengriist believers view their existence as sustained by the Eternal Blue Sky, Tengri, the fertile Mother-Earth Spirit Eje, and a ruler who is regarded as the Holy Spirit of the Sky. By living an upright and respectful life, a human being will keep his world in balance and maximize his personal wind horse power. Shamans play an important role in restoring balance when it is thrown off by disaster or spirit interference.
During the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, the campaigns by Zhou's vassal states to purge other hostile "barbarians" allowed Xiongnu the opportunity to strengthen and fill up the niche. These newly arisen nomads became a great problem for the Chinese, as their horseback lifestyle made them ready for rapid invasion and raiding villages and townships.
In 209 BC, just three years before the founding of the Han Dynasty, the Xiongnu were brought together in a powerful confederacy under a new chanyu named Modu Chanyu The Xiongnu's political unity transformed them into a much more formidable foe by enabling them to concentrate larger forces and exercise better strategic coordination. The cause of the confederation, however, remains unclear.
After Modun, a dualistic system of political organisation was formed. The chanyu or shan-yü (supreme ruler) exercised direct authority over the central territory. The Longcheng near Koshu-Tsaidam in Mongolia, was established as the annual meeting place and de facto capital.
The general orientation was southward, as was customary among Turko-Mongol peoples; the same phenomenon is to be seen among the descendants of the Hsiung-nu, the Turks of the sixth century A.D., as well as in the case of the Mongols of Jenghiz Khan.
note: The original homeland of the Turks, was the Ural-Altay region of Central Asia, which has been the domain of Turkic peoples since antiquity.
note: Hunnic Empire was an empire founded by the Huns and were a confederation of Turkic speaking Eurasian tribes
Donghu, Toba, and Rouruan
Rise of the Türk
Under the rule of Tang dynasty
Kitan and Jurchen
Shiwei and Menggu
3 Mongol Period
3.1 Confederations and kingdoms in the 12th century
3.2 Consolidation of the Mongol State
3.3 Formation of the Mongol Empire
3.4 Mongol Empire and Pax Mongolica
3.5 Fragmentation of the Mongol Empire
3.5.1 Yuan Dynasty
3.5.2 Golden Horde
3.5.3 Chagatai Ulus
3.5.4 Hulagu Ulus
3.6 The Forty and the Four
3.7 The third introduction of Buddhism
3.8 Cultural renaissance
3.9 Foreign conquests
3.10 Foreign rule
The Mongol Empire was an empire from the 13th and 14th century spanning from Eastern Europe across Asia. It is the largest contiguous empire in the history of the world. It emerged from the unification of Mongol and Turkic tribes in modern day Mongolia, and grew through invasions, after Genghis Khan had been proclaimed ruler of all Mongols in 1206. At its greatest extent it stretched from the Danube to the Sea of Japan(or East Sea) and from Arctic to Camboja, covering over 33,000,000 km2 (12,741,000 sq mi), 22% of the Earth's total land area, and held sway over a population of over 100 million people. It is often identified as the "Mongol World Empire" because it spanned much of Eurasia. As a result of the empire's conquests and political and economic impact on most of the Old World, its wars with other great powers in Africa, Asia and Europe are also believed to be an ancient world war. Under the Mongols new technologies, various commodities and ideologies were disseminated and exchanged across Eurasia.
However, the empire began to split following the succession war in 1260-1264, with the Golden Horde and the Chagatai Khanate being de facto independent and refusing to accept Kublai Khan as Khagan. By the time of Kublai Khan's death, the Mongol Empire had already fractured into four separate khanates or empires, each pursuing its own separate interests and objectives. But the Mongol Empire as a whole remained strong and united.The Great Khans of the Yuan Dynasty assumed the role of Chinese emperors and fixed their capital at Khanbaliq (modern-day Beijing) from old Mongol capital Karakorum. Although other khanates accepted them as their titular suzerains and sent tributes and some support after the peace treaty in 1304, the three western khanates were virtually independent, and they each continued their own separate developments as sovereign states. Eventually the Mongol rule in China fell in 1368 though the Genghisid Borjigin Dynasty survived in Mongolia until the 17th century.
Mongol Empire and its fragmentation
The establishment of the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) by Kubilai Khaan accelerated fragmentation of the Mongol Empire. The Mongol Empire fractured into the Yuan Dynasty, the Golden Horde, Chagatai Khanate and Ilkhanate. But the Great Khans still had influence over other khanates.
The Mongol Empire was the largest contiguous empire in human history. The 13th and 14th century, when the empire came to power, is often called the "Age of the Mongols". The Mongol armies during that time were extremely well organized.
Many ancient sources described Genghis Khan's conquests as wholesale destruction on an unprecedented scale in their certain geographical regions, and therefore probably causing great changes in the demographics of Asia. For example mass moving of the Iranian tribes of Central Asia into modern Iran. The eastern part of the Islamic world experienced the terrifying death and destruction of the Mongol invasion. Between 1220 and 1260, the total population of Persia may have dropped from 2,500,000 to 250,000 as a result of mass extermination and famine.
Non-military achievements of the Mongol Empire include the introduction of a writing system, based on the Uighur script, that is still used in Inner Mongolia. The Empire unified all the tribes of Mongolia, which made possible the emergence of a Mongol nation and culture. Modern Mongolians are generally proud of the empire and the sense of identity that it gave to them.
Some of the long-term consequences of the Mongol Empire include:
The Yuan Dynasty (established by Kublai Khan in 1271) is traditionally given credit for reuniting China and expanding its frontiers. The use of paper money (Chao) reached its peak under the Mongol emperors in China, however, a later administration's incorrect monetary policy caused hyperinflation.
The language Chagatai, widely spoken among a group of Turks, is named after a son of Genghis Khan. It was once widely spoken, and had a literature, but eventually became extinct in Russia.
Moscow rose to prominence during the Mongol-Tatar yoke, some time after Russian rulers were accorded the status of tax collectors for Mongols (which meant that the Mongols themselves would rarely visit the lands that they owned). The Russian ruler Ivan III overthrew the Mongols completely to form the Russian Tsardom, after the Great stand on the Ugra river proved the Mongols vulnerable, and led to the independence of the Grand Duke of Moscow.
Europe's knowledge of the known world was immensely expanded by the information brought back by ambassadors and merchants. When Columbus sailed in 1492, his missions were to reach Cathay, the land of the Grand Khan in China and give a letter entitled to Grand Khan from the monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile.
Some research studies indicate that the Black Death, which devastated Europe in the late 1340s, may have reached from China to Europe along the trade routes of the Mongol Empire. In 1347, the Genoese possession of Caffa, a great trade emporium on the Crimean peninsula, came under siege by an army of Mongol warriors under the command of Janibeg. After a protracted siege during which the Mongol army was reportedly withering from the disease, they decided to use the infected corpses as a biological weapon. The corpses were catapulted over the city walls, infecting the inhabitants. The Genoese traders fled, transferring the plague via their ships into the south of Europe, whence it rapidly spread. The total number of deaths worldwide from the pandemic is estimated at 75 million people, there were an estimated 20 million deaths in Europe alone. It is estimated that between one-quarter and two-thirds of the of Europe's population died from the outbreak of the plague between 1348 and 1350.
Among the Western accounts, R. J. Rummel estimated that 30 million people were killed under the rule of the Mongol Empire. The population of China fell by half in fifty years of Mongol rule. Before the Mongol invasion, Chinese dynasties reportedly had approximately 120 million inhabitants; after the conquest was completed in 1279, the 1300 census reported roughly 60 million people. David Nicole states in The Mongol Warlords, "terror and mass extermination of anyone opposing them was a well tested Mongol tactic." About half of the Russian population may have died during the invasion.However, Colin McEvedy (Atlas of World Population History, 1978) estimates the population of Russia-in-Europe dropped from 7.5 million prior to the invasion to 7 million afterwards. Historians estimate that up to half of Hungary's two million population at that time were victims of the Mongol invasion.
One of the more successful tactics employed by the Mongols was to wipe out urban populations that had refused to surrender. In the invasion of Kievan Rus', almost all major cities were destroyed. If they chose to submit, the people were spared and treated as slaves, which meant most of them would be driven to die quickly by hard work, with the exception that war prisoners became part of their army to aid in future conquests. In addition to intimidation tactics, the rapid expansion of the Empire was facilitated by military hardiness (especially during bitterly cold winters), military skill, meritocracy, and discipline. Subutai, in particular among the Mongol Commanders, viewed winter as the best time for war — while less hardy people hid from the elements, the Mongols were able to use frozen lakes and rivers as highways for their horsemen, a strategy he used with great effect in Russia.
The Mongol Empire had a lasting impact, unifying large regions, some of which (such as eastern and western Russia and the western parts of China) remain unified today, albeit under different rulership. The Mongols themselves were assimilated into local populations after the fall of the empire, and many of these descendants adopted local religions — for example, the eastern Khanates largely adopted Buddhism, and the western Khanates adopted Islam, largely under Sufi influence.
The influence of the Mongol Empire may prove to be even more direct — Zerjal et al. identify a Y-chromosomal lineage present in about 8% of the men in a large region of Asia (or about 0.5% of the men in the world). The paper suggests that the pattern of variation within the lineage is consistent with a hypothesis that it originated in Mongolia about 1,000 years ago. Such a spread would be too rapid to have occurred by diffusion, and must therefore be the result of selection. The authors propose that the lineage is carried by likely male line descendants of Genghis Khan, and that it has spread through social selection.
In addition to the Khanates and other descendants, the Mughal royal family of South Asia are also descended from Genghis Khan: Babur's mother was a descendant — whereas his father was directly descended from Timur (Tamerlane).
The remnants of the Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty) in Mongolia after 1368, known as the Northern Yuan, did not surrender to the Manchus until 1635, who were prompted to establish the Qing Dynasty in 1636 as the successor of both the Northern Yuan Dynasty and the Ming Dynasty by 1644, though one successor khanate of the empire survived until the 1920s.