The victorious allies impose harsh terms on Germany after World War I. This created the economic and political atmosphere that enabled the Nazis to come to power. It was the same kind of harsh treatment of the French by the Germans after the 1870 war that helped cause World War I. This pattern finally was noted after World War II and a more practical approach adopted.
Herod (73-4 BCE) was the pro-Roman king of the small Jewish state in the last decades before the common era. He started his career as a general, but the Roman statesman Mark Antony recognized him as the Jewish national leader. During a war against the Parthians, Herod was removed from the scene, but the Roman Senate made him king and gave him soldiers to seize the the throne. As 'friend and ally of the Romans' he was not a truly independent king; however, Rome allowed him a domestic policy of his own.
The Massacre of the Innocents is an episode of mass infanticide by the King of Judea, Herod the Great. (He is not to be confused with his son Herod Antipas, also of the Herodian dynasty, who was ruler of Galilee (4 BC - 39 AD) during the time of John the Baptist and Jesus of Nazareth.) Traditionally believed to be Matthew the Evangelist, reports that King Herod ordered the execution of all young male children in the village of Bethlehem, so as to avoid the loss of his throne to a newborn King of the Jews whose birth had been announced to him by the Magi. The author's goal was to portray Jesus as the Jewish Messiah, the fulfillment of Jewish prophecy, and a greater Moses. The first two chapters of Matthew comprise a birth and infancy narrative that has no parallel elsewhere in the New Testament, diverges from the corresponding accounts in Luke, and seems to be a secondary composition not originally integral to the gospel. The incident is not mentioned by the contemporary Jewish historian Josephus, nor in the other gospels, nor in the early Biblical apocrypha. Most recent biographers of Herod therefore do not regard the massacre as an actual historical event, but rather, like the other nativity stories, as creative hagiography.
Herod I or Herod the Great was a major Roman client-king of Judea approximately 37-4 B.C.E. in Jerusalem. Known to history as a ruthless man who did not hesitate to kill anyone who might have threatened his throne, Herod also proved himself to be a capable administrator and far-sighted ruler who reigned over a territory greater than any Jewish king following Solomon's era. He navigated the treacherous political waters of the Roman Empire during the reigns of Mark Antony, Cleopatra, and Octavius. His leadership also helped to build the economic might of Judea by founding cities, expanding religious sites, developing agricultural projects, and creating a relatively stable government during a particularly tumultuous period. Herod's fatal flaw appears to have been his obsessive insecurity about his place on the throne. However, there is also no doubt that there were indeed many plots against him. Nevertheless, his ruthlessness in dealing with perceived threats has earned him a place in history more for his cruelty than for his many positive accomplishments.
An Shi /An Lushan/Tianbao Rebellion:
The An Shi Rebellion took place in China during the Tang Dynasty, from December 16, 755 to February 17, 763. It takes the first names of the starting rebel An Lushan and Yan's later successor Shi Siming. The rebellion spanned the reign of three Tang emperors, and the death toll is estimated to be up to 36 million, though this figure is almost certainly exaggerated and is unsubstantiated due to the breakdown of the census system during the war.
JEWS OF GRANADA:
Capital of the Spanish province of the same name. It is said to have been inhabited by Jews from the earliest times; hence it was also called "Villa de Judios" (City of Jews), and, like Cordova, it was entrusted by the Arabian conquerors to the Jews for guardianship. The picturesque city of Granada rests in a fertile plain that was settled as early as the 5th century B.C.E. The Romans (200 BCE - 400 C.E.) called the area Iliberias. The Visigoths (400-700) established the city, but it was the Moors (711) who developed the region and gave the city its name. Some scholars theorize that Granada means "pomegranate." The Berbers (1013), whose origins would later be ascribed to Goliath the Philistine, left the greatest mark upon the city.
Spanish Jews once constituted one of the largest and most prosperous Jewish communities under Muslim and Christian rule in Spain, before they were expelled in 1492. Today, a few thousand Jews live in Spain, but the descendants of Spanish (and Portuguese) Jews, the Sephardic Jews, still make up around a tenth of the global Jewish population.The Jews of Spain speak Ladino, a Romance language, derived mainly from Old Castilian (Spanish) and Hebrew. The relationship of Ladino to Castilian Spanish is comparable to that of Yiddish to German.
Legend has it that some of the Jews who were exiled by Nebuchadnezzar (586 BCE) settled in Granada. Even the Moors recognized this ancient tradition by referring to the city as "Granada of the Jews." But the earliest extant evidence of a Jewish presence in Granada is a reference to Jews helping man the garrison, built after the city's conquest by the Moors in 711. Like all Jewish communities in Spain, Jewish Granada prospered under the Ummayad caliphate (755-1013). But when Cordoba was sacked by the Berbers in 1013, and Moslem Spain broke up into a number of petty kingdoms, Granada began to grow in importance. At the center of this ascendancy stood Samuel Ha'Nagid, a Jewish refugee from Cordoba. After living for a brief time in Malaga, Samuel was invited to become the secretary to the King's vizier in Granada. It wasn't long until his exceptional abilities were recognized by the King and he was promoted to a position of respect and authority. In a struggle for succession to the throne (1038), Samuel backed the winner, and was ultimately rewarded with the title of chief minister. With each sparkling achievement of their dynamic leader, the Jewish community grew in stature. Under his guidance, Granada became an important center of Jewish learning and culture.
Unfortunately, upon Samuel's death (1055), the Jewish community of Granada began a steep decline which reached a horrible climax in 1066. Leading the community was Samuel's son, Joseph, who lacked his father's humility. Though well educated and groomed, he was ostentatious and arrogant. He soon alienated the ruling Berbers as well as the Arab masses. On a Shabbat in 1066, Joseph's palace was stormed and he was murdered, crucified on a cross. The entire Jewish community came under the riotous siege (December 30th) resulting in 4,000 deaths and the destruction of most property. Incredibly, the community quickly recovered, only to fall again, this time at the hands of the Almoravids in 1090. Later, under the rule of the Almohads regime (1148-1212), only Jews who had converted to Christianity were allowed to live in the city. For the next two centuries, a series of Berber dynasties - the Almoravides and the Almohades - ruled the city. After the capture of Córdoba by the Christian armies in 1236, Granada increased in importance, reaching its brilliant zenith under the rule of the Moorish Nasrites, who were tolerated by the Castilian kings. Jews returned to the city when Granada was ruled by the Naserite dynasty (1232-1492). The famed Alhambra (The Red) fortress was built at this time. Granada was the only surviving bastion of Islam in Spain until Ferdinand and Isabelle conquered it in 1491. On March 31, 1492, the saga of the Jews of Granada came to a crushing conclusion, when Ferdinand and Isabelle signed the edict of expulsion in the "City of the Jews."
Iran which has been a regional superpower for thousands of years but fell on hard times since the 7th century. First came conquest by the Arab revival (the initial wars of conquest by newly converted Muslim Arab). This was humiliating because Persians never thought such a thing possible. That was followed by a devastating visit by the Mongols followed by exhausting wars with the Ottoman Turks and finally the Western nations and all their new tech and ideas.
KING AETHELRED/ETHELRED II THE UNREADY ORDERED A MASSACRE OF DANISH SETTLERS IN 1002:
King Aethelred/Ethelred II nicknamed The Unready is a corruption of the Old English 'unreed', meaning badly counselled or poorly advised. "Unready" is a mistranslation of Old English unræd (meaning bad-council) - a pun on his name "Æthelred" (meaning noble-council). His father was King Edgar who was the great-grandson of King Alfred the Great, and it was during Edgar's reign that, for the first time since before Alfred, all of England was united under one king. The Anglo-Saxon kingdom of England was at its height, seemingly free from dangers, internal or external. And thus, King Edgar was given the nickname "the Peaceful." Of all the kings in English history, King Aethelred/Ethelred II has perhaps the worst reputation.
A power struggle had ensued between Aethelred/Ethelred II and his brother. The struggle ended with the murder of Ethelred's half-brother, Edward.Queen Elfrida, his mother, was said to have been instrumental in the treacherous murder. In 978 Ethelred was crowned king of England at age 10. It should come as no surprise that someone who was granted so much authority at such a young age might suffer from a lack of wisdom in how to wield that power. By the end of his reign, he'd managed to lose almost all of England to Viking Invaders. In the year 1,002, Ethelred, now living in constant fear of the Danes, ordered the massacre of Danes living in England. In one of the blackest days in English history, the Anglo-Saxons turned on their Danish neighbours, many of whom had lived in England for generations, and slaughtered them without mercy.
The effect of the massacre was only to cause a greater rift within England, and give justification for further attacks from Denmark. Soon King Swein of Denmark brought a huge fleet to England. Although again and again, Ethelred paid the Danegeld, it was all for naught. In 1013, the Danes had overrun so much of England that Ethelred fled to Normandy.
King Swein became the defacto ruler of England, however, just one year later, in 1014 he died. England became divided. Most excepted Swein's son Cnut as king, but in London and parts of the south, the nobles invited Ethelred to return. Ethelred did return (after first sending his son to make sure it was safe). Upon his return, he organized and led his only successful military venture. Catching Cnut by surprised, he forced the Danish to flee to their ships and put to sea. It was a short-lived victory, and later that year, Ethelred once again paid the Danegeld.
In 1016, Ethelred died. By then he was really only king of London and pieces of the south. His throne passed to his son Edmund "Ironsides", who lead a brief and determined struggle against the Danes before his murder left Cnut the undisputed ruler of all England. The problems and disunity that were created during this time would not be fully healed until after William the Conqueror came and destroyed the entire noble class of the country.
(Aethelred's wife was Emma, or Aelfgifu, daughter of Richard I the Fearless, Duke of the Normans, whom he married in 1002. After the king's death Emma became the wife of Canute the Great, and after his death in 1035 she struggled hard to secure England for her son, Hardicanute. In 1037, however, when Harold Harefoot became sole king, she was banished; she went to Flanders, returning to England with Hardicanute in 1040. In 1043, after Edward the Confessor had become king he seized the greater part of Emma's great wealth, and the queen lived in retirement at Winchester until her death on the 6th of March 1052. By Aethelred Emma had two sons, Edward the Confessor and the aetheling Alfred (d. 1036), and by Canute she was the mother of Hardicanute. Emma's marriage with Aethelred was an important step in the history of the relations between England and Normandy, and J. R. Green says "it suddenly opened for its rulers a distinct policy, a distinct course of action, which led to the Norman conquest of England. From the moment of Emma's marriage Normandy became a chief factor in English politics.")
CROW CREEK MASSACRE:
The Crow Creek Massacre site is located in Buffalo County of central South Dakota. The village where the massacre took place was on a piece of land formed by the confluence of the Crow Creek and Wolf Creek. These two creeks flowed into the flood plain of the Missouri River creating a fertile area for its residents to grow their crops.
In 1978, an archaeologist, Robert Alex, who was attending a meeting hosted by the South Dakota Archaeological Society, toured the Crow Creek site and discovered human bones while exploring the fortifications at the site. After permission to excavate the site was received, skeletal remains of at least 486 Crow Creek villagers were uncovered. These estimates were based on the number of right temporals present at the scene. This event, called the Crow Creek Massacre, has raised many questions in the archaeological community, among them being who would have attacked the Crow Creek village and why it was attacked.
The Crow Creek massacre occurred around 1325 AD (that is, long before Columbus) in South Dakota, along the Missouri River. Archaeologists believe that this massacre may have taken place for a number of reasons. Some explanations are more plausible than others, but none can be proven definitively.
First is the hypothesis that the Middle Missouri Tradition people came down from the north and attacked those that had now inhabited their abandoned village. The victims were from a group of agriculturalists known as the 'Initial Coalescent people' who are thought to have migrated from the plains due to drought. There is evidence that the victims were malnourished and that several individuals had previous war wounds (healed scalpings, arrows embedded in bone, etc.). Though this is possible, it is not likely. Additionally, they clearly felt threatened: a defensive ditch was under construction when the massacre occurred. The stronger hypothesis is that other Initial Coalescent people from neighboring villages attacked and killed the Crow Creek villagers to take their land and used it to grow crops for themselves. This is supported by evidence of nutrient deficiencies found in the bones of the victims and the belief that there may have been as many as 8000 people living in this small area along the Missouri River. The timing of the massacre also supports this hypothesis. As winter approached, food would have been hard to come by especially if this area was overpopulated. The total number of victims is estimated at 486 people, which included men, women and children.
Disturbingly, many of the victims were tortured (including "tongue removal, decapitation, and dismemberment"), at least 90% of the people were scalped and their village was burnt. The victims were left to rot where they fell, and were apparently only buried some months later.
SIEGE OF NICOSIA:
The large and wealthy island of Cyprus had been under Venetian rule since 1489. Together with Crete, it was one of the major overseas possessions of the Republic. Its population in the mid-16th century is estimated at 160,000. Aside from its location, which controlled the Levantine trade, the island possessed a profitable production of cotton and sugar. To safeguard their most distant colony, the Venetians paid an annual tribute of 8,000 ducats to the Mamluk Sultans of Egypt, and after their fall to the Ottomans in 1517, the agreement was renewed with the Porte. Nevertheless, the island's strategic location in the Eastern Mediterranean, between the Ottoman heartland of Anatolia and the newly won provinces of the Levant and Egypt, made it a tempting target for future Ottoman expansion. In addition, the protection offered by the local Venetian authorities to Christian corsairs who harassed Muslim shipping, including the pilgrims to Mecca, rankled with the Ottoman leadership.
The (Fifth Ottoman–Venetian) War of Cyprus, the main event of Sultan Selim II's reign, began when the Ottomans invaded the Venetian-held island of Cyprus. The capital Nicosia and several other towns fell quickly to the greatly superior Ottoman army, leaving only Famagusta in Venetian hands. Christian reinforcements were delayed, and Famagusta eventually fell in August 1571 after a siege of 11 months. Two months later, at the Battle of Lepanto, the united Christian fleet destroyed the Ottoman fleet, but was unable to take advantage of this victory. The Ottomans quickly rebuilt their naval forces, and Venice was forced to negotiate a separate peace, ceding Cyprus to the Ottomans and paying a tribute of 300,000 ducats.
The siege was undertaken in the approved method of those days. The first batteries were set up at a distance of about 300 paces from the ramparts, on a front of about a mile extending from the Paphos gate to the Famagusta gate, to attack the four southern bastions of the city. Under cover of the fire from these batteries the besiegers occupied the old mediaeval ditch (which had not been completely filled in), and from there they pushed forward zigzag trenches which could not be enfiladed by the defenders on the ramparts. By this means they got within eighty paces of the ramparts, and there set up their second line of batteries from which for four days they bombarded the four bastions, Podecattero, Constanza, Davila and Tripoli. but, as this fire had no effect on the earthworks of the city, they drove trenches up to the counterscarp, the outer edge of the ditch, where they threw up parapets of earth and posted musketeers to drive the defenders from the walls. Under cover of this fire they rove deep trenches across the ditch, protected from the flanking fire of the defenders by ramparts constructed of earth and brushwood. By this means they reached the corners of the bastions and began to cut away the masonry so as to form a sloping approach by which to deliver an assault.
Meanwhile the defenders had not been idle, but the fire from the ramparts had not been able to stop the construction of trenches and batteries, nor were there sufficient troops in the city to enable them to make a counter-attack. Nevertheless, when the Turks had crossed the ditch and began to demolish the bastions, it was evident that a sortie must be made to destroy the works of the besiegers. The sortie, made at midday when the Turks were sleeping in the shade, had some temporary success. Two batteries were captured, but by scattering to collect loot the Venetians were unable to withstand the counter-attack of the Turks, and were driven back into the city. The defenders then gave up all idea of further sallies, inner lines of defence were hastily constructed across the four threatened bastions and messages were sent to Famagusta to ask for help. They were encouraged by reports that the Venetian fleet was coming to their aid and rejected the proposals made by Lala Mustafa for surrender on honourable conditions.
The siege had now lasted for six weeks, the summer season was drawing to a close, for fifteen days the various attacks on the bastions had been repulsed, and Lala Mustafa determined to make a great effort to take the city by assault. Being informed from Rhodes that the Venetian fleet was not likely to arrive owing to dissensions among the allies, he ordered all the troops in his ships at Larnaca to come to Nicosia, which he had not ventured to do before. The courage of the jannissaries was revived by the promise of rewards to those who should first cross the walls, and a general assault on the four bastions was ordered. Before dawn on 9 September the Turks advanced to the attack. Scaling the walls of Constanza bastion while the defenders were still asleep, they made themselves masters of the bastion and drove the defenders into the city square. The Tripoli bastion was also stormed, and three guns there were captured and turned upon the defenders in the square. Street by street the Turkish forces forced their way into the city. The last stand was made in the courtyard of the Palace. Summoned to surrender, the defenders agreed to lay down their arms to save their lives. On the fall of Nicosia, the commandant of Kyrenia surrendered without making any defence, and that castle is therefore the only one of the Venetian fortresses that has remained intact to the present day.
FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION:
The French Wars of Religion (1562–98) were a series of violent confrontations between French Catholics and French Protestants, known as Huguenots, between 1562 and 1598. The exact number of wars and their respective dates are the subject of continued debate by historians; some assert that the Edict of Nantes in 1598 concludes the wars, while a resurgence of rebellious activity following this leads some to believe the Peace of Alais in 1629 is the actual conclusion. However, the Massacre of Vassy in 1562 is agreed to begin the Wars of Religion and the Edict of Nantes at least ended this series of conflicts. During this time, complex diplomatic negotiations and agreements of peace were followed by renewed conflict and power struggles.
Earlier in the 16th century, French Protestant John Calvin had developed a set of Protestant doctrines which were widely regarded as uniques French in nature - this helped lead to the widespread popularity of Calvin's band of Protestantism through France, even among powerful members of the nobility. The conflict involved the factional disputes between the aristocratic houses of France, such as the House of Bourbon and House of Guise (Lorraine), and both sides received foreign aid.
This did not sit well either with the secular or the religious rulers of the day. The secular rulers saw this development as a threat to the absolute power of the state while the religous rulers saw it as yet another heretical step in the destruction of the Church. Indeed, Catholic leaders will still hurting from the loss of Catholic power in England due to the actions of King Henry VIII. As a consequence, both banded together to fight the growing menace of Protestantism in France. Much of France was laid waste and the agricultural production of the countryside shut down as entire villages were slaughtered and armed bands sought out those who followed the "wrong" religion.
One of the most powerful people involved in Wars of Religion was Catherine de Medici, Regent and Queen Mother during the reign of her sons Francis II, Charles IX, Henry III, Duke of Alencon. She was a Roman Catholic, but by and large she was more interested in preserving the integrity and authority of the royal power for the sake of her sons and family.
Thus, even after Huguenots plotted to usurp the power of an allied Catholic family in the Conspiracy of Ambroise, leading to the deaths of hundreds of Protestants in a preemptive attack, Catherine tried to give Huguenots religious rights by having the Edict of Toleration issued. This, however, infuriated many Catholics and percipitated a temporary coup during which more Huguenots were slaughtered.
Catherine proceeded to play both sides against each other in her effort to ensure that her family would, in some fashion, retain power. On the one hand, she arranged the marriage of her daughter margaret to Duke Henry of Nevarre, a Protestant from the House of Bourbon who had a claim to the throne of France after her family. On the other hand, she arranged the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre to occur after the wedding and made sure that her son Charles IX took care of it, leading to the deaths of at least 3,000 Huguenots in Prist and 20,000 more around France.
Many Protestants converted in order to avoid death, but later recanted because the oaths were made under duress. Just two months after the massacre new fighting broke out and Charles was forced to sign the Peace of La Rochelle. It permitted, but restricted, Huguenot worship. In practice, however, the restrictions were generally ignored and Huguenots did whatever they wanted.
King Henry III tried to take a more conciliatory line with the Protestants and signed a treaty with them which would give them basic religious and civil rights throughout France. These events were unacceptable to many powerful Catholic families. One, Duke of Guise, intended to take the French throne for himself and formed the Catholic League for the twin purposes of exterminating Protestantism from France and putting him on the throne instead of Henry. The League was fully supported by the Pope and by Philip II of Spain.
Because of the power and actions of the Catholic Leage, Henry III was forced to cancel the treaty entirely and the Wars of Religion began anew. After Catherine's son Henry III died, her fourth son Francois, Duke of Anjou, joined the Protestants with his own army. Around the same time. Duke Henry of Nevarre realized that he would be able to do more to help Protestantism as King than as a rebel and so converted to Catholicism. This in turn allowed him to be coronated as King Henry IV of France, establishing the Bourbon line of kings. The same year he signed Treaty of Vervins with Catholic leaders, requiring their principel backer Philip II of Spain to remove Spanish troops from France.
In the end, the Catholic League had to disband. Despite what they had done to France, Henry IV still sought to make peace with them and signed a treaty with them, despite the objections of Parliament. The power of the Catholic framilies was retained, but at the cost of their efforts to enforce that power over Protestants. In 1598 Henry issued the Edict of Nantes, giving partial religious freedom to the Huguenots. Although it was not full equality, it did end the French Wars of Religion. During the wars it is estimated that the population of France, at between 16 to 18 million people in 1600, fell by 2 to 4 million through a combination of famine, disease and combat. The wars weakened the authority of the monarchy, already fragile under the rule of Francis II and then Charles IX of France, though it reaffirmed its role under Henry IV.
The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre (Massacre de la Saint-Barthélemy in French) in 1572 was a targeted group of assassinations, followed by a wave of Roman Catholic mob violence, both directed against the Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants), during the French Wars of Religion. It was one event in the series of civil wars between Roman Catholics and Huguenots that beset France in the late 16th century. The Massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day was the culmination of a series of events:
* The Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, which put an end to the third War of Religion on 8 August 1570.
* The marriage between Henry III of Navarre and Marguerite of Valois on 18 August 1572
* The failed assassination of Admiral de Coligny on 22 August 1572, the military and political leader of the Huguenots.
Starting on 23 August 1572 (the eve of the feast of Bartholomew the Apostle) with murders on orders of the king of a group of Huguenot leaders including Coligny, the massacres spread throughout Paris. Lasting several weeks, the massacre extended to other urban centres and the countryside. Modern estimates for the number of dead vary widely between 5,000 and 30,000 in total.
The massacre also marked a turning point in the French Wars of Religion. The Huguenot political movement was crippled by the loss of many of its prominent aristocratic leaders, as well as many re-conversions by the rank and file, and those who remained were increasingly radicalized. Though by no means unique, it "was the worst of the century's religious massacres."
ENGLISH CIVIL WAR:
(What an inequitable thing it is for one man to have thousands, and another want bread, and that the pleasure of God is, that all men should have enough, and not that one man should abound in this worlds good, spending it upon his lusts, and another man of far better deserts, not be worth two pence, and that it is no such difficulty as men make it to be, to alter the course of the world in this thing, and that a few diligent and valiant spirits may turn the world upside down, if they observe their seasons, and shall with life and courage ingage accordingly. --- attributed to William Walwyn)
War broke out less than forty years after the death of Elizabeth I in 1603. At the accession of Charles I in 1625, England and Scotland had both experienced relative peace, both internally and in their relations with each other, for as long as anyone could remember. Charles hoped to unite the kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland into a new single kingdom, fulfilling the dream of his father, James I of England (James VI of Scotland). Many English Parliamentarians had suspicions regarding such a move, because they feared that setting up a new kingdom might destroy the old English traditions which had bound the English monarchy. As Charles shared his father's position on the power of the crown (James had described kings as "little Gods on Earth", chosen by God to rule in accordance with the doctrine of the "Divine Right of Kings"), the suspicions of the Parliamentarians had some justification.
The English Civil War was as much the response to the effects of the Reformation as it was a response to the needs of the rising middle classes, the landed gentry. The war itself involved the king, Parliament, the aristocracy, the middle classes, the commoners, and the army. The War tested the prerogative of the king and challenged the theory of divine right. War raged between Parliamentarians, Royalists, Cavaliers and Roundheads and every religious sect in England.
The years before 1640 in England were years of national disillusionment. The gap between the court and Protestant elements widened, the golden age of drama and literature was over, the religion of the court and at Oxford and Cambridge seemed diffused, and scientific ideas, though popular in London and at Oxford and Cambridge, as yet had received no official recognition. In the meantime, censorship grew more severe, and lawyers became the patrons and consumers of art. For the most part, energies which had been devoted to literature in the mid-to-late 16th century were now channeled into political and theological concerns. The Civil War was both religious and political, as well as social and economic. But it was also a legal battle between the king and his subjects.
The English Civil War (1641–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. The first (1642–46) and second (1648–49) civil wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third war (1649–51) saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament. The Civil War ended with the Parliamentary victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651.
The Civil War led to the trial and execution of Charles I, the exile of his son, Charles II, and replacement of English monarchy with first, the Commonwealth of England (1649–53), and then with a Protectorate (1653–59), under Oliver Cromwell's personal rule. The monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship in England ended with the victors consolidating the established Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland. Constitutionally, the wars established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without Parliament's consent, although this concept was legally established only with the Glorious Revolution later in the century.
CAMPBELL MASSACRE OF THE LAMONTS:
Clan Lamont is one of the oldest of Scottish Clans, with a celtic oral tradition of descent stretching back to the Kings of Ireland. The name is thought to derive from the Old Norse for "lawman", and according to Highland tradition the Lamonts were founded by Ferchar who lived around 1200. The name is taken from a Chief in the 13th century. His name was Sir Laumon, whose charter granting lands to the Paisley Abby, is still in existence.
Although the name comes from the 13th century Chief, the Clan is much older, being known as MacKerracher before Sir Laumon's time. Sir Walter Scott refered to him in 'Antiquary as' "Lamon mor", or the 'Great Lamont' in English. Sir Laumon's mother is believed to have been a daughter of the great Somerled, ancestor of the MacDonalds. Tradition, supported by a genealogical work of 1682 found in Inveraray Castle, maintains that a son of Sir Laumaon, had to flee Cowal as a result of a murder; and founded the Lyons of Glamis. He took the name of Lyon from the Lamont arms, and chose as his arms, the reverse of the Lamonts, a blue lion on a silver field.
In the early 1300s, the Clan's fortune faced a great crisis. Laumon's grandson, Sir John, supported the MacDougalls of Lorne against Robert the Bruce. The Lamonts of Ardlamont, however, who held their land as vassals of the High Steward in Bute, may have fought in Bruce's bodyguard at Bannockburn. (This is not confirmed). When Bruce was secure on the Scottish throne the Lamont Chief suffered with the House of Lorne and the Clan's land was claimed by the Campbell of Loch Awe. By the end of the 14th century a great deal of the original territory of the Clan had been lost; and thus began a 'feud' between the Lamonts and the Campbells which continued on and off for centuries.
In the 17th century wars of Sir John Montrose, became 14th Chief. who had been knighted by King Charles, the Scottish French King. Sir John joined 'Argyl's [private, but condoned by the English], Covenanting army and in the inglorious rout of that force at Inverlochy he and his brother were taken prisoner. He then threw in his lot with Montrose (Campbell), the Royalist general.
The darkest era of Clan Lamont was during the middle of the 17th century when about 100 Lamonts were massacred at Dunoon in 1646 by their powerful neighbours the Campbells. (In the 19th century the clan chief emigrated to Australia, where the present chief of the clan lives. The clan lives today as the Clan Lamont Society, which was formed in 1895.) There the Campbells carried out another of the massacres which stain their Clan's history. In 1646 the Campbells made a concentrated attack on the Lamont castles of Toward and Ascog, and, when the garrisons surrendered under written guarantee of liberty, the Campbells ignored the terms of capitulation. The survivors of the defenders were carried in boats to Dunoon and in the church were sentenced to death. About 100 were shot or stabbed to death and another 36 of 'the special gentlemen' of the Lamonts were hanged from a tree in the churchyard and dead and dying were buried in pits. The Chief and his close kin were hustled away to Inveraray, where some were hanged, the Chief and his brothers being kept prisoner for five years. It was 16 years before the ringleaders of the massacre were brought to justice, and Sir Colin Campbell was beheaded.. The Clan Lamont Society in 1909 raised a monument on the spot where so many met their deaths.
During the disturbed period of the Civil War several of the Campbell chiefs ravaged the Lamont country and in 1646 treacherously massacered 200 Lamonts at Dunoon. (This massacre formed one of the charges against the Marquis of Argyle for which he was executed in 1661). Not surprisingly what remained of the Clan scattered and the chiefship passed to a cadet branch which later immigrated to Austrailia where the present cheif now lives. John the 9th chief commanded the Gordan Highlanders at Corunna in 1809. The Lamonts were connected by marriage to many of the titled families in Scotland.
After 1646, the much reduced Clan Lamont had a fairly peaceful history, finally having the good sense or luck to not get involved with any more Campbells. They stayed to themselves, and did not 'go 'out for the Jacobite uprising of 1745 nor 1715 Jacobite uprisings. (The Battle of Culloden Moor, 1746). Possibly their reluctance to enter into these Jacobite Scottish uprisings against the King of England is due to two facts. They were surrounded by the Campbells, who always sided with the English government (They were the English police, and served the English well, and all lands they took in the name of the English King, they kept.....a profitable, and territory enlarging 'spoils', and there are still hard feelings on the Campbell way of killing, and stealing lands, in the name and protection of the English King.
With the destruction of the Clan system in 1746, the structure of Highland society was changed for all time. Clan Chiefs' power was eliminated, so was their ability to protect their Clansmen, lead them, hunt with them was ended and need for dedicated Clansmen to protect and expand the Clan lands, no longer existed.
One of the factors of the Highland Clearances, was the Chief's inability to care for his Clan without any real power. Lands were taken away and given to whomever King Malcolm 1st and 3rd, decided to give the lands to his political friends, thus leaving the Clan members out in the cold. Crofters were substituted for Clansmen and became tenant farmers with a bare existence.
The English and new Chiefs alike, cleared the land of crofters, and substituted the more profitable sheep. As was the case with the Lamonts, some Chiefs tended to sell off the Clan lands instead of shifting to sheep, those sheep also replaced the Highlanders. Sadly, as a result of this policy, there are now none of the ancestral lands in Lamont hands. Starting very early, even before 1600, Lamonts have tended to disperse, and are now one of the most widespread of Clans. Part of this dispersement was due to the Clan trying to not be found by the Campbells who killed every Lamont on sight.
IRISH ELEVEN YEARS (CONFEDERATE) WARS BETWEEN THE CATHOLICS AND THE ENGLISH PROTESTANT DURING THE REIGN OF KING CHARLES I:
Ulster is one of four provinces in Ireland. Geographically it is in the north of the country and takes in nine counties: Antrim, Armagh, Cavan, Derry, Donegal, Down, Fermanagh, Monaghan and Tyrone. Of these nine counties, six are in the political and administrative unit which since 1921 has formed the state of Northern Ireland.
Before the plantation of Ulster in the early seventeenth century, Ulster was the most Gaelic part of Ireland and had successfully resisted English colonial ambitions. The relationships between Ulster chiefs and those in the rest of Ireland were not close, except when they faced each other across battlefields. Links with Scotland were close; western Scotland and eastern Ulster exchanged immigrants many years before the middle ages.
The dominance of the O'Donnells in Donegal, the MacDonnells in Antrim and the O'Neills in Tyrone gave Ulster some stability and produced military cohesion against Queen Elizabeth I's armies. It took nine years and a blockade to bring the Ulster chiefs to their knees.
From 1608, British settlers, known as planters, were given land confiscated from the native Irish in the Plantation of Ulster. Coupled with Protestant immigration to "unplanted" areas of Ulster, particularly Antrim and Down, this resulted in conflict between the native Catholics and the "planters". This led to two bloody ethno-religious conflicts in 1641–1653 and 1689–1691, each of which resulted in Protestant victories. The Rising of 1641 against the Planters caused a massacre of Protestants, and the Cromwellian conquest in the 1650s resulted in a massacre of Catholics.
The Irish Confederate Wars, also called the Eleven Years War (derived from the Irish language name Cogadh na haon deag mbliana), were fought in Ireland between 1641 and 1653. The Wars were the Irish theatre of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms - a series of civil wars in Kingdoms of Ireland, England and Scotland (all ruled by Charles I) that also included the English Civil War and civil war in Scotland. The conflict in Ireland essentially pitted the native Irish Roman Catholics against the Protestant British settlers and their supporters in England and Scotland.
The war in Ireland began with the rebellion of the Irish of Ulster in October 1641, during which thousands of Scots and English Protestant settlers were killed. The rebellion spread throughout the country and at Kilkenny in 1642 the association of The Confederate Catholics of Ireland was formed to organise the Irish Catholic war effort. The Confederation was essentially an independent state and was a coalition of all shades of Irish Catholic society, both Gaelic and Old English. The Irish Confederates professed to side with the English Royalists during the ensuing civil wars, but mostly fought their own war in defence of the Irish Catholic landed class's interests.
The Confederates ruled much of Ireland as a de facto sovereign state until 1649, and proclaimed their loyalty to Charles I. From 1641 to 1649, the Confederates fought against Scottish Covenanter and English Parliamentarian armies in Ireland. The Confederates, in the context of civil war in England, were loosely allied with the English Royalists, but were divided over whether to send military help to them in the English Civil War. Ultimately, they never sent troops to England, but did send an expedition to help the Scottish Royalists, sparking the Scottish Civil War.The war in Ireland began with the rebellion of the Irish of Ulster in October 1641, during which thousands of Scots and English Protestant settlers were killed. The rebellion spread throughout the country and at Kilkenny in 1642 the association of The Confederate Catholics of Ireland was formed to organise the Irish Catholic war effort. The Confederation was essentially an independent state and was a coalition of all shades of Irish Catholic society, both Gaelic and Old English. The Irish Confederates professed to side with the English Royalists during the ensuing civil wars, but mostly fought their own war in defence of the Irish Catholic landed class's interests.
The Confederates ruled much of Ireland as a de facto sovereign state until 1649, and proclaimed their loyalty to Charles I. From 1641 to 1649, the Confederates fought against Scottish Covenanter and English Parliamentarian armies in Ireland. The Confederates, in the context of civil war in England, were loosely allied with the English Royalists, but were divided over whether to send military help to them in the English Civil War. Ultimately, they never sent troops to England, but did send an expedition to help the Scottish Royalists, sparking the Scottish Civil War. The subsequent war continued in Ireland until the 1650s, when Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army decisively defeated the Irish Catholics and Royalists and re-conquered the country.
(As the penal laws broke down in the latter part of the eighteenth century, there was more competition for land, as restrictions were lifted on the Catholic Irish ability to rent. With Roman Catholics allowed to buy land and enter trades from which they had formerly been banned, Protestant "Peep O'Day Boys" attacks on that community increased. In the 1790s Catholics in south Ulster organised as "The Defenders" and counter-attacked. This created polarisation between the communities and a dramatic reduction in reformers within the Protestant community. It had been growing more receptive to ideas of democratic reform.
Following the foundation of the nationalist-based Society of the United Irishmen by Presbyterians, Catholics and liberal Anglicans, and the resulting failed Irish Rebellion of 1798, sectarian violence between Catholics and Protestants continued. The Orange Order (founded in 1795), with its stated goal of upholding the Protestant faith and loyalty to William of Orange and his heirs, dates from this period and remains active to this day.
In 1801, a new political framework was formed with the abolition of the Irish Parliament and incorporation of Ireland into the United Kingdom. The result was a closer tie between the former, largely pro-republican Presbyterians and Anglicans as part of a "loyal" Protestant community.
On Oct. 30, 2002 in response to the British move to impose direct rule again, the IRA suspended contact with the arms inspectors who were overseeing the disarmament of Northern Ireland's guerilla and paramilitary groups. The Council on Foreign relations has estimated that Protestant paramilitary groups have been responsible for 30% of the civilian deaths in the Northern Irish conflict. The two main Protestant vigilante groups are the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) and the Ulster Defence Association (UDA). Strongest during the 1970s, their ranks have diminished since then. While Protestant paramilitaries have observed a cease-fire since the IRA declared one, none of these groups has made any moves toward surrendering their weapons as stipulated by the Good Friday Accord.
In October 2006, a report by the Independent Monitoring Commission in Northern Ireland indicated that the IRA had definitively ceased all paramilitary activity and declared that "the IRA's campaign is over." Shortly after parliamentary elections in March 2007, Gerry Adams, the leader of Sinn Fein, and Rev. Ian Paisley, the head of the Democratic Unionist Party, met face to face for the first time and hashed out an agreement for a power-sharing government. Local government was restored to Northern Ireland in May 2007 as Rev. Ian Paisley, leader of the Democratic Unionists, and Martin McGuinness, of Sinn Fein, were sworn in as leader and deputy leader, respectively, of the Northern Ireland executive government, thus ending direct rule from London. "I believe we are starting on a road to bring us back to peace and prosperity," said Paisley. British prime minister Tony Blair praised the historic deal. "Look back, and we see centuries marked by conflict, hardship, even hatred among the people of these islands," he said. "Look forward, and we see the chance to shake off those heavy chains of history.”
Despite efforts to bring about a resolution to the conflict during the 1970s and 80s, terrorist violence was still a problem in the early 90s and British troops remained in full force. More than 3,000 people have died as a result of the strife in Northern Ireland.)
British troops were sent to Boston in 1768 to help officials enforce the Townshend Acts, a series of laws passed by the British Parliament. The purpose of the Townshend program was to make colonial governors and judges independent of colonial control, to create a more effective means of enforcing compliance with trade regulations, and to establish the controversial precedent that Parliament had the right to tax the colonies.
Colonists objected that the Townshend Acts were a violation of the natural, charter, and constitutional rights of British subjects in the colonies. Boston was a center of the resistance. The Massachusetts House of Representatives began a campaign against the Townshend Acts by sending a petition to King George asking for the repeal of the Townshend Revenue Act. The House then sent what became known as the Massachusetts Circular Letter to the other colonial assemblies, asking them to join the resistance movement.
In Great Britain, Lord Hillsborough, who had recently been appointed to the newly created office of Colonial Secretary, was alarmed by the actions of the Massachusetts House. In April 1768 he sent a letter to the colonial governors in America, instructing them to dissolve the colonial assemblies if they responded to the Massachusetts Circular Letter. He also directed Massachusetts Governor Francis Bernard to have the Massachusetts House rescind the Circular Letter. The House refused to comply.
The Townshend Acts were so unpopular in Boston that customs officials requested naval and military assistance. Commodore Samuel Hood complied by sending the fifty-gun warship HMS Romney, which arrived in Boston Harbor in May 1768. On June 10, 1768, customs officials seized the Liberty, a sloop owned by leading Boston merchant John Hancock, on allegations that the ship had been involved in smuggling. Bostonians, already angry because the captain of the Romney had been impressing local sailors, began to riot. Customs officials fled to Castle William for protection.
Given the unstable state of affairs in Massachusetts, Hillsborough instructed General Thomas Gage, Commander-in-Chief, North America, to send "such Force as You shall think necessary to Boston". On October 1, 1768, the first of four regiments of the British army began disembarking in Boston.
The incident began on King Street, today known as State Street, in the early evening of March 5, in front of Private Hugh White, a British sentry, as he stood duty outside the Custom house. A young wigmaker's apprentice named Edward Gerrish called out to a British officer, Captain Lieutenant John Goldfinch, that Goldfinch had not paid the bill of Gerrish's master. Goldfinch had in fact settled his account and ignored the insult. Gerrish departed, but returned a couple of hours later with companions. He continued his complaints, and the civilians began throwing snowballs at Goldfinch. Gerrish also exchanged insults with Private White, who left his post, challenged the boy, and then struck him on the side of the head with a musket. As Gerrish cried in pain, one of his companions, Bartholomew Broaders, began to argue with White. This attracted a larger crowd.
This 19th century lithograph is a variation of Revere's famous engraving. Produced soon before the American Civil War, this image emphasizes Crispus Attucks, who had by then become an important symbol for Abolitionists.
As the evening progressed the crowd grew larger and more boisterous with a momentary lull. The mob grew in size and continued harassing Private White. As bells rang in the surrounding steeples, the crowd of Bostonians grew larger and more threatening. Private White left his sentry box and retreated to the Custom House stairs with his back to a locked door. Nearby, from the Main Guard, the Officer of the Day, Captain Thomas Preston, watched this situation escalate and, according to his account, dispatched a non-commissioned officer and several soldiers of the 29th Regiment of Foot, with fixed bayonets, to relieve White. He and his subordinate, James Basset, followed soon afterward.As this relief column moved forward to the now empty sentry box, the crowd pressed around them. When they reached this point they loaded their muskets and joined with Private White at the custom house stairs. As the crowd, estimated at 300 to 400, pressed about them, they formed a semicircular perimeter.
The crowd continued to harass the soldiers and began to throw snow balls and other small objects at the soldiers. Private Hugh Montgomery was struck down onto the ground by a club wielded by Richard Holmes, a local tavernkeeper. When he recovered to his feet, he fired his musket, later admitting to one of his defense attorneys that he had yelled "Damn you, fire!". It is presumed that Captain Preston would not have told the soldiers to fire, as he was standing in front of the guns, between his men and the crowd of protesters. However, the protesters in the crowd were taunting the soldiers by yelling "Fire". There was a pause of indefinite length; the soldiers then fired into the crowd. Their uneven bursts hit eleven men. Three Americans — ropemaker Samuel Gray, mariner James Caldwell, and a mixed race sailor named Crispus Attucks — died instantly. Seventeen-year-old Samuel Maverick, struck by a ricocheting musket ball at the back of the crowd, died a few hours later, in the early morning of the next day. Thirty-year-old Irish immigrant Patrick Carr died two weeks later. To keep the peace, the next day royal authorities agreed to remove all troops from the centre of town to a fort on Castle Island in Boston Harbor. On March 27 the soldiers, Captain Preston and four men who were in the Customs House and alleged to have fired shots, were indicted for murder.
The Boston Massacre is one of most important events that turned colonial sentiment against King George III and British acts and taxes. Each of these events followed a pattern of Britain asserting its control, and the colonists chafing under the increased regulation. Events such as the Tea Act and the ensuing Boston Tea Party were further examples of the crumbling relationship between Britain and the colonies. The Boston Massacre was an incident that led to the deaths of five civilians at the hands of British troops on March 5, 1770, the legal aftermath of which helped spark the rebellion in some of the British American colonies, which culminated in the American Revolution.
MASSACRE OF THE CIRCASSIANS:
On 22 December 1790 Suvorov successfully stormed the reputedly impenetrable fortress of Ismail in Bessarabia. Turkish forces inside the fortress had the orders to stand their ground to the end and haughtily declined the Russian ultimatum. Their defeat was seen as a major catastrophe in the Ottoman empire, but in Russia it was glorified in the first national anthem, Let the thunder of victory sound!
Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov announced the capture of Ismail in 1791 to the Tsarina Catherine in a doggerel couplet, after the assault had been pressed from house to house, room to room, and nearly every Muslim man, woman, and child in the city had been killed in three days of uncontrolled massacre, 40,000 Turks dead, a few hundred taken into captivity.
Zulu Civil War or Ndwandwe–Zulu War of 1817–1819 :
The Zulu Civil War or Ndwandwe–Zulu War of 1817–1819 was a war fought between the expanding Zulu kingdom and the Ndwandwe tribe in South Africa.
The Zulus were originally a small tribe that had migrated to the eastern plateau of present-day South Africa; they became a strong tribal nation largely due to the efforts of an ambitious chieftain named Shaka (reigned c. 1787–1828). A rebellious young man, Shaka was estranged from his father, who was a Zulu chief, and became a warrior with the Mthethwa people. The Mthethwa paramount chieftain Dingiswayo helped Shaka become recognized as head of the Zulus after Shaka's father died in 1816. The two chieftains were close friends, and their warriors fought together against common enemies, such as the Ndwandwe headed by King Zwide. After Dingiswayo was murdered by Zwide, the Mthethwa people placed themselves under Shaka and took the Zulu name. Shaka revolutionized traditional ways of fighting by introducing the assegai, a light javelin, as a weapon and by organizing warriors into disciplined units that fought in close formation behind large cowhide shields. In the Battle of Gqokli Hill in 1819, his troops and tactics prevailed over the superior numbers of the Ndwandwe people, who failed to destroy the Zulu in their first encounter.
The Ndwandwe and the Zulus met again in combat at the Battle of Mhlatuze River in 1820. The Zulu tactics again prevailed, pressing their attack when the Ndwandwe army was divided during the crossing of the Mhlatuze River. Zulu warriors arrived at Zwide's headquarters near present-day Nongoma before news of the defeat, and approached the camp singing Ndwandwe victory songs to gain entry. Zwide was killed, and most of the Ndwandwe abandoned their lands and migrated north and eastward. This was the start of the Mfecane, a catastrophic, bloody migration of many different tribes in the area, initially escaping the Zulus, but themselves causing their own havoc after adopting Zulu tactics in war. Shaka was the ultimate victor, and his people still live today throughout Zululand, with customs and a way of life that can be easily traced to Shaka's day.
WATERLOO CREEK MASSACRE:
In 1838 white people had settled Australia for just 51 years. Pastoralists were pushing into Aboriginal land, dispossessing Indigenous people from the land that nurtured them physically and spiritually. Aboriginal people did not give up their land that they had looked after for millennia without a fight. White settlers engaged in many clashes with Aboriginal people at the frontier.
The Waterloo Creek massacre occurred in January 1838 at Snodgrass Lagoon on Waterloo Creek and may be the largest mass murder in Australian history, some claiming 100–300 Indigenous Australian men, women and children were killed. With the eyes of the law often several days' ride away the settlers had little to fear. Gangs of stockmen went on what was known as 'the Big Bushwhack' or simply 'the Drive': a hunt for Aboriginal people which lasted several months. They thought there was nothing wrong with shooting Aboriginal people or raping Aboriginal women.
In contrast, the Myall Creek massacre was the only one, of many of its type in Australia, for which anyone was ever punished.
THE GREAT IRISH POTATO FAMINE [1845-1850]:
(The Irish Famine of 1740–1741 was perhaps of similar magnitude to the better-known Great Famine of 1845–1852. Unlike the famine of the 1840s, which was caused in part by a fungal infection in the potato crop, that of 1740–41 was due to extremely cold and then rainy weather in successive years, resulting in a series of poor harvests. Hunger compounded a range of fatal diseases. The cold and its effects extended across Europe, and it is now seen to be the last serious cold period at the end of the Little Ice Age of about 1400–1800. )
At the start of the famine over one half of the population of the country lived in small one-roomed dwellings. Little or no furniture and animals would be accommodated with the occupants of the dwelling. The other half would live in two-storey houses or mansions – landlords or wealthy tenants – mostly found along the East and the South Coast. Two thirds of the population were involved in agriculture.
The arrival of the month of June indicated the start of the hungry or meal months in rural Ireland as new potatoes were not dug until August. People simply had nothing to eat or at best could manage a meal of porridge. Hunger was commonplace and small scale famines were therefore not unknown. The potato became the staple diet of much of the country during the early 1800s as it was ideally suited to the Irish climate, could be grown even in poor soils, gave a high return per acre and a single acre could support a family of 5–6 people.
By 1845, it is estimated that about one third of the entire population was totally dependent on the potato, and in poor regions, like Mayo, it was the only food eaten by up to nine tenths of the population.
The Great Famine in Ireland began as a natural catastrophe of extraordinary magnitude, but its effects were severely worsened by the actions and inactions of the Whig government, headed by Lord John Russell in the crucial years from 1846 to 1852.
Even today, anti-British murals on the walls of West Belfast proclaim: “There was No Famine,” as many of the Irish argue that England exploited the potato famine of the early 1840’s to decimate the population of its unruly colony - Ireland.
The 'Great Hunger' was one of many famines in Ireland during the first half of the nineteenth century, but the size of the disaster dwarfed those that preceded it. The 1841 census recorded an Irish population of 8.2 million. By 1851 this figure had been reduced to 6.5 million. It has been estimated that at least one million people died from starvation and its attendant diseases, with the balance seeking emigration to Britain and North America
The Irish Famine of 1846-50 took as many as one million lives from hunger and disease, and another one million emigrated and many died on the “coffin ships” to America, Australia and Canada. The condition of the ships in which tens of thousands of people emigrated were appalling as many middle-men used sub-standard vessels and carried too many people, with a view to making a quick profit. The term has also been used to refer to the ships that carried Irish emigrants escaping the effects of the potato famine as well as displaced Highlanders due to the Highland Clearances. These ships, crowded and disease ridden, with poor access to food and water, resulted in the deaths of many people as they crossed the Atlantic. Owners of coffin ships provided as little food, water, and living space as was legally possible – if they obeyed the law at all. While coffin ships were the cheapest way to cross the Atlantic, mortality rates of 30% aboard the coffin ships were common. It was said that sharks could be seen following the ships, because so many bodies were thrown overboard.
As a result of the famine, disease and emigration, Ireland's population decreased by an estimated 3 million people. From this tragedy sprang a renewed fervor for Irish nationalism that would lead to independence for part of the island and decades of war for Northern Ireland.
Haun's Mill massacre:
Haun's Mill was a mill established on the banks of Shoal Creek in Fairview Township, Caldwell County, Missouri in 1835–1836 by Jacob Haun, an early Latter-day Saint settler. By October 1838 there were approximately 75 Mormon families living along the banks of Shoal Creek. The Haun's Mill massacre was an event in the history of the Latter Day Saint movement. It occurred on October 30, 1838 when a militia unit from Livingston County attacked a Mormon settlement in eastern Caldwell County, Missouri, United States, in retaliation for the killing of one Missourian and mutilation of another, as well as attacking Missouri State Troops, at the Battle of Crooked River. By far the bloodiest skirmish in the 1838 Mormon War in Missouri, the events have long been remembered by the members of the Latter Day Saint movement. The fifty-five men known by name to be involved were never prosecuted.
Dungan Revolt (Hui Minorities' War and the Muslim Rebellion):
It was an uprising by members of the Hui and other Muslim ethnic groups in China's Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia provinces, as well as in Xinjiang, between 1862 and 1877. The Dungan Revolt was a religious war in 19th-century China. The term is sometimes used to refer to the Panthay Rebellion in Yunnan as well. The Panthay Rebellion (1856–1873), known in Chinese as the Du Wenxiu Rebellion was a separatist movement of the Hui people and Chinese Muslims against the imperial Qing Dynasty in southwestern Yunnan Province, China, as part of a wave of Hui-led multi-ethnic unrest.
The usage of the term "ethnic cleansing" started in the early 1990s to describe war events